Lecture 02--Imperialism and Reform: The Middle East in the 9th Century

Lecture 02--Imperialism and Reform: The Middle East in the 9th Century

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I. Decline of the Ottomans a. Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarja—1774 i. Territorial loss (Romania and Crimea) ii. Russia and Greek Orthodox 1. Russia stepping on Ottoman toes by taking over Greek Orthodox millets a. To administer in their own Greek Orthodox territory, the Ottomans have to ask permission from Russia iii. Exposed decline 1. Military 2. Technology a. Weaponry not up to date with Russians, Austrians 3. Becoming a second-tier power b. European Intrusion i. Napoleon 1. When they set off from France, none but Napoleon and a select few others knew where they were going. a. Ottoman fleet can’t compete with French warships ii. Egypt—1798 1. Napoleon wanted to cut off British trade to India by taking Egypt a. Also wants to attack India by marching through Ottoman territory, but the Ottomans don’t like that iii. Aboukir Bay 1. Britain crushes Napoleon outside the Bay iv. French presence until 1801 1. Cut off from returning home because of Aboukir Bay, they occupy Egypt a. Resistance came in the form of guerilla tactics 2. French troops convert to Islam and marry Islamic women 3. Egyptology begins at this point because Napoleon brought scientists a. Rosetta Stone found v. Repercussions 1. Technology 2. Ottoman weakness a. French occupation exposes weakness. II. Ottomans and Reform a. Selim III (1789-1801) i. Goal: Preserve and strengthen Ottoman state ii. War with Austria and Russia showed problems 1. Other militaries are surpassing the Ottoman one iii. Tries to revamp military (along European lines) 1. Builds new barracks, raises pay slightly 2. Upgraded weapons manufacturing 3. People don’t like the new training method or new weapons 4. Primary obstacle: Janissaries
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a. “Weekend warriors” because they’re not
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Lecture 02--Imperialism and Reform: The Middle East in the 9th Century

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