Lecture 03--Post Tanzimat to WWI

Lecture 03--Post Tanzimat to WWI - 1 Post Tanzimat to WWI...

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1 Post Tanzimat to WWI Lecture 3 *No real government for 50-ish years after the Safavid Empire I. Iran and the Qajar Dynasty a. Qajars: Another Turkic group b. Fath Ali Qaja – 1794 dynasty established i. Not a reforming dynasty c. Qajars and Ulama i. Temporal rulers ii. Ijtihad (mujtahid) 1. Shi’ites follow a mujtahid 2. Living mujtahid had preference 3. Sunni closed the gates of ijtihad in the 11 th century No new interpretations; no hierarchy iii. Ayatollahs (“eyes of God”) 1. At the top of the mujtahid hierarchy (Marj al-Taqlid) 2. Very few of them d. Iran in the 19 th century i. Control was Tehran 1. Little control beyond city ii. Decentralized authority 1. Small standing army 2. Poor administration/virtually no civil service 3. People didn’t like the government iii. Nasir al-Din Shah (1848-1896) 1. Military reforms – Cossak Brigade 1879 a. Natives, but commanded by Cossaks (Russians) b. Much better fighting forces than previously 2. Administrative problems a. Nepotism b. Selling of offices c. Tax farming 3. Dar al-Funun: School a. Westernized and secular b. Weaned people away from religious education c. Didn’t really have an impact because of the tribal system/nepotism (Family had high roles in government) e. Europe and Iran i. Location-strategic 1. Between Russian Empire and the crown jewel of the British Empire (India) 2. No one is interested in a strong Qajar state because they don’t want to lose their influence ii. Treaty of Turkomanchai – 1828 1. Russia gets lots of trade concessions 2. No Iranian navy on the Caspian Sea (Caspian = Russian lake) 3. Favorable tariff rates 4. Russian merchants can travel freely 5. Brits demand same trading concessions iii. Entente 1. Russians in Northern Russia 2. British in Southern Iran 3. Qajars in the middle a. al-Din tries to play them off each other i. Economic concessions iv. Tobacco Protests – 1891 1. Shah awards British complete monopoly over tobacco sales a. Puts people out of work
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2 Post Tanzimat to WWI
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 3400 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at University of North Georgia- Dahlonega.

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Lecture 03--Post Tanzimat to WWI - 1 Post Tanzimat to WWI...

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