Lecture 04--WWI and its Aftermath

Lecture 04--WWI and its Aftermath - 1 I. WWI and its...

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1 WWI and its Aftermath Lecture 4 I. Run-up to WWI a. Ottomans i. Losing territory ii. European intrusion (Russian [Orthodox], French Maronites) b. New government in WWI i. CUP (Young Turks) and WWI ii. Neutrality? 1. Most of CUP wanted to stay neutral iii. Allied? 1. No one wanted to join allies (Britain, France, Russia) iv. Central powers? 1. Some wanted to strike at Russia and gain back territory, but don’t necessarily want to fight Britain and France II. Ottomans in WWI a. Germans and Ottomans i. Ottomans basically give military power to Germans ii. Liman von Sanders: Top guy b. Britain and change in policy i. As soon as it was clear the Ottomans were on German side, Britain changed its policy ii. Sick Man of Europe 1. No one originally wants the Empire dismembered, but in WWI they’re happy to divide it up a. Britain, France, Russia, Italy, US iii. Balance of power iv. Acquisition of Empire c. Jihad i. Caliph called for jihad ii. Nightmare for Allies because France and Russia each have thousands of Muslim subjects and Britain has millions iii. Caliph’s authority is not as great as the Allies think it is iv. It’s a propaganda move – galvanizes Ottoman Muslims to support the government d. Transcaucasia i. Problem: Many fronts of fighting for the Ottomans 1. Their defensive technology is much better than their offensive technology. ii. Enver Pasha 1. Rapid advances against Russia 2. Very reckless – loses lots of troops a. When Russia counterattacks, they’re too tired to fight back 3. Removed in 1915 4. Russia leaves WWI in 1917 (Bolshevik Revolution) and Ottomans re- gain land iii. “Armenian Genocide” – was it intentional? 1. Armenians in Ottoman Empire and Russia – Russia supports a separate Armenian state a. Retaliation against Armenians because they begin revolting i. Forced evacuations through mountains, desert, etc. 1. Sometimes execution because they were easy to rob, etc. ii. Leaders disappear b. 1 to 1.5 million people die
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2 WWI and its Aftermath Lecture 4 c. Turkey says although it was horrific, it wasn’t genocide. It was just a disorganized effort. e. Eastern Europe i. Gallipoli – 1915 1. Britain – Very poorly conceived plan to capture Istanbul a. Waited for more troops, which gave the Turks time to rally b. Turks block British navy support ii. Colonel Mustafa Kemal f. Mesopotamia (First British front) i. British India 1. Britain tries invading from south because of oil and they don’t want to lose India a. Afraid of Ottoman/Afghan stir-up b. Best defense is a good offense ii. Oil 1. Britain invades and takes Iranian oil fields iii. Basra – 1914 iv. Kut – 1915-16 1. Britain gets bogged down on the way to Baghdad 2. Ottoman counterattack 3. Britain almost cut off and surrounded, but reinforcements arrive in
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 3400 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at University of North Georgia- Dahlonega.

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Lecture 04--WWI and its Aftermath - 1 I. WWI and its...

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