Lecture 05--The Middle East, Mandates, and Resistance

Lecture 05--The Middle East, Mandates, and Resistance -...

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Lecture 5 The Middle East, Mandates, and Resistance 1 I. Egypt under British Rule a. The Lord Cromer Era (1893-1907) i. Evelyn Baring = Lord Cromer ii. British (European Superiority) 1. Lord Cromer viewed his subjects with disdain iii. Governance 1. Egyptian/Ottoman officials, but British shadow govt who could veto decisions 2. Priorities a. Paying debt i. Increased agriculture b. Maintain stability i. Included keeping contrary ideas subdued iv. Reforms 1. Benefited nobles and ayans (large landholders) 2. Economic success 3. Improved worker conditions 4. Status of fellahin a. Peasants still exploited 5. Governance b. Resistance to British Rule i. Urban middle and professional classes ii. Journalists, Newspapers, Nationalism 1. Played major role in Egypt’s rising nationalism 2. Many were Ottoman refugees 3. Newspapers written in Arabic, so British didn’t really pay attention 4. Al-Ahram 5. Variety of views iii. Dinshawi Incident in 1906 1. Small clash in village of Dinshawi 2. British soldiers pigeon shooting, but pigeons are village’s livelihood; soldier accidentally shoots prayer leader’s wife a. The Brit who goes for help dies of heatstroke and a villager finds him just as more British soldiers arrive i. He’s arrested; four villagers are sentenced to death; others got flogged or got life in prison 3. Journalists circulate pictures, which undermine British rule and unite peasants and middle class c. Post-Cromer i. Some changes post Dinshawi 1. Some Egyptians allowed into higher positions 2. Political parties a. Constitutional Reform Party – Shaykh Ali Yusuf b. People’s Party – Lufti al-Sayyid c. National Party – Mustafa Kamil i. Wants Britain to evacuate the country immediately d. No mass outpouring of support for one group or another 3. 1913 British recognized rising nationalism a. Granted a constitution b. Included indirectly elected parliament i. British picked representatives ii. WWI temporarily halted nationalist agitation 1. Martial law d. Revolt in Egypt i. Made a protectorate in 1914
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Lecture 5 The Middle East, Mandates, and Resistance 2 1. Main interest for Britain is to protect the Suez Canal ii. Egyptian discontent widespread iii. Rise of Wafd 1. First major political movement in Egypt 2. Go on tour of countryside, advocating independence a. The people think they represent everybody 3. Refused at Peace of Paris 4. Sa’d Zaghlul: Leader a. Educated at European and Islamic schools b. Is a judge and lawyer c. Charismatic d. Brits exile him to Malta, but it causes more riots iv. Allenby and Peace of Paris 1. Allenby allows Zaghlul to go 2. Wafd demands a. Complete independence b. British evacuation e. Egyptian Independence (1922) i. Conditions 1. Khedive made king 2. British security for communications (Suez) 3. British protection for foreigners 4. British protection against foreign intrusions ii. Between wars 1. British influence 2. Political problems a. Constitution
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 3400 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at University of North Georgia- Dahlonega.

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Lecture 05--The Middle East, Mandates, and Resistance -...

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