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Lecture 08--Outside the Arab World: Turkey and Iran

Lecture 08--Outside the Arab World: Turkey and Iran - 1 I...

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1 Outside the Arab World: Turkey and Iran Lecture 8 I. Cold War and US Involvement a. US ties develop to contain communism b. 1945 Turkey i. Soviet Union tries to take Armenia and tries to gain greater control over the Turkish Straits c. 1945 Iran i. Azerbaijan – Soviet Union encouraging revolt ii. There are still Soviet troops in Iran from WW II d. Truman Doctrine – 1947 i. To contain the Soviets ii. Domino theory – if the Soviets control one place, soon others will follow 1. The US sends money to prevent this from happening e. NATO – Turkey is a part in 1952 f. Baghdad Pact – 1955 i. Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, Britain II. Turkey Post-Kemal a. Rise of multi-party system i. Republican People’s Party (Ataturk’s party) 1. President Inonu has same policies as Ataturk ii. Commercial and agrarian discontent 1. Wanted more control, more participation iii. Democratic Party – 1946 1. Emerges from commercial and agrarian discontent 2. Stems from RPP – ideals not that different 3. Grassroots program 4. Lessen Kemalism a. Focus of party is to lessen government interference iv. 1950 elections 1. Democratic Party gets 408 seats 2. Ends 27 years of RPP rule peacefully 3. Inonu doesn’t go into exile…just becomes the opposition leader b. The Democratic Decade – 1950-1960 i. Shift in power and policy from military leaders to politicians 1. Adnan Menderes (PM) 2. Politics and religion a. Call to prayer switched back to Arabic b. Lots of religious stuff instead of the old secularism i. Menderes didn’t overturn secularism, just modified it 3. Economy a. Private business b. Agricultural reforms i. Because the peasants were the base (75%) of his support ii. Farm equipment ii. Criticism and response 1. Repression a. Newspapers shut down, press censored b. Leads to violent protests and rallies for the Republican Party 2. The role of the military a. PM calls on the military to restore order in April, 1960, and to break up the Republican Party rallies b. Kayseri – a city where a rally had taken place i. Inonu (former president; Ataturk’s right hand) is there and stands in front of the army 1. The army doesn’t go against him
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2 Outside the Arab World: Turkey and Iran Lecture 8 c. Coup d’Etat – 1960 i. The army realizes it’s being used as a political tool.
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