Lecture 09--Camp David and the Politics of Oil

Lecture 09--Camp David and the Politics of Oil - 1 I Camp...

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1 Camp David and the Politics of Oil Lecture 9 I. Rise of Anwar Sadat a. Death of Nasser – 1970 b. Anwar Sadat (1918-1981) i. “Nasser’s Poodle” 1. Likes the finer things 2. Doesn’t have much experience in anything ii. Wanted significant change 1. Not afraid to go against Nasser’s legacy iii. Purged rivals from the government, particularly the Arab Socialist Union c. Revolution of Rectification – 1972 (Sadat’s major plan) i. Economic and political liberalization 1. Due to carry-overs from Six Day War a. Losses of Suez Canal, oil, and tourism revenues 2. Israeli negotiations failed a. Hard to negotiate when the other party doesn’t want to talk b. Israel had the advantage and no incentive to negotiate 3. Soviet-Egyptian relations a. Reverses them to try to get US support b. Kicks out 20,000 Soviet advisers c. Doesn’t really completely break with them, but begins relations with the US 4. Bad timing: A few weeks later, world attention was focused on Munich a. Black September kills Israeli Olympic team i. Arabs get a bad rap because no one in the US really knows about the Middle East II. Yom Kippur War – 1973 a. Aka Ramadan War b. Since Israel won’t negotiate, Sadat wants to discredit them and attract US attention c. The Crossing – 6 October 1973 i. Cross the Nile and then the Suez Canal ii. Syria invades Golan Heights * Egypt stops 8 km past the Suez because they’re only trying to prove a point. * Also want to stay close to their own air defenses iii. Egyptian success in counter-intelligence 1. Contacts in Israeli intelligence 2. Sadat begins campaign of misinformation * No intent of invading Israel unless it was clear they could take Jerusalem d. Digging in and counter-attack i. Commando attacks very successful ii. Syrian Front iii. Henry Kissinger involved because Israel panics iv. Third Temple and Nixon 1. Last resort – if we go down, w e take everything and everyone with us 2. Nixon sending weapons as fast as he can v. Oct. 14 – Damascus 1. Syria is stopped 2. Israel launches air attacks on Damascus vi. The Sinai – Egypt leaves their aerial defenses and Syria is stopped, so Israel is able to stop them e. Cease Fire and Peace i. UN controlled talks 1. US, USSR, Israel, Egypt, and Syria ii. Exchange POWs and wounded iii. Geneva Talks – Nov., 1973 1. Failed because of Kissinger’s ego
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2 Camp David and the Politics of Oil Lecture 9 iv. Proxy War – Extensionof Cold War 1. OPEC and oil a. Arab states in OPEC cut production by 5% per month in support of Egypt and Syria i. Also suspended shipments to the US 2. Israel and Sinai a. Kissinger gets Israel to withdraw from the Sinai by giving more aid to them 3. Suez Canal a. US gives Egypt aid to rebuild it III. Al-Infitah (The Opening) a. Economic reforms i. Foreign businesses were invited to return ii. Land purchases – laws were loosened iii. Private sector opportunities b. Economic failure i. Bureaucratic obstacles ii. Foreign debt stopped many from investing iii. The Usual Suspects in the private sector – it’s still the old elites (no one new)
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Lecture 09--Camp David and the Politics of Oil - 1 I Camp...

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