Lecture 10--The Middle East to the Iran-Iraq War

Lecture 10--The Middle East to the Iran-Iraq War - 1 The...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 The Middle East to the Iran-Iraq War Lecture 10 I. The Lebanese Civil War a. Lebanon-post Black September, 1970 i. Palestinian conflict focuses there for a while – war zone for 15 years ii. PLO – Moves HQ there iii. 300,000 refugees in southern Lebanon in camps 1. PLO manages them iv. Commandos of PLO have to get approval from Lebanese government, but PLO doesn’t abide by that v. Territorial sovereignty? vi. What does Lebanon do? b. Demographic and political changes i. Most Muslims are Shia and don’t have much say in the government ii. Nepotism and corruption rampant iii. President Sulayman Frangieh (1970-1976) iv. Lebanese National Movement 1. Attempt by Jumblatt to rally Muslims 2. Kamal Jumblatt 3. Abolish confessional politics to try to fix the misrepresentation of population 4. Favored PLO v. Maronites 1. Against Jumblatt, especially the 2 military groups a. Phalange – led by Pierre Gemayel b. Tigers – led by Camille Chamoun c. War begins – 1975 i. Phalange attacks a Palestinian bus – PLO retaliates d. Outside influences i. Syria, Israel get involved in war e. Battleground Beirut i. Lebanese National Movement vs. Phalange 1. About politics, not religion, but politics are shaped by religion ii. Sectarian rift deepened because politics is based on religion, so when one gains, the other loses iii. Phalange and allies become Lebanese Front iv. PLO back in January, 1976 1. Had tried to stay neutral, but now Phalange attacks are expanding outside Beirut 2. Tal al-Za’tar v. Where is the army? 1. It’s dissolving and soldiers are joining their respective sectarian groups f. Syrian intervention – Maronites appeal to them i. Syria helps because Maronites run the legitimate government and also to avoid the PLO gaining influence in Syria ii. Syria and al-Asad – 1976 iii. Ceasefire – October 18, 1976 – Just between Syria and the PLO 1. Peacekeepers and PLO – Syrian troops = peacekeepers 2. Business as usual – PLO commando raids on Israel g. Israeli intervention and Menachim Begin – because there’s no one to stop PLO from raiding because they’re all fighting each other i. Isolate West Bank by destroying the PLO in Lebanon 1. Then the West Bank wouldn’t have champions on the outside ii. 1978 – 20,000 troops drive to the Litani River iii. Invasion 1982 – PLO and southern Lebanon 2 The Middle East to the Iran-Iraq War Lecture 10 1. People in southern Lebanon don’t like being shot at, so they flee north – a lot of Shia population goes to Beirut 2. Forced withdrawal by Israel because of pressure from the US and the UN 3. Lessons learned: a. Cannot destroy PLO only in the south because they have bases elsewhere b. PLO tied to Lebanese instability – PLO can only exist because of government instability iv. 1982 invasion – Peace for Galilee 1. Destroy PLO military 2. Force out Syria 3. Form alliance with Maronites because they run the government 4. Bashir Gemayel and Lebanese forces a. Destroy PLO bases – Real...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 3400 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at University of North Georgia- Dahlonega.

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Lecture 10--The Middle East to the Iran-Iraq War - 1 The...

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