Psy 101 Prof. Short Exam 2 SG - PSY 101 2 Practice Test E 1 Food is a reinforcer while money is a reinforcer a positive primary b secondary negative c

Psy 101 Prof. Short Exam 2 SG - PSY 101 2 Practice Test E 1...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 101 -­‐ ​2 Practice Test E 1. Food is a _________ reinforcer, while money is a ___________ reinforcer. a. positive, primary b. secondary, negative c. primary, secondary d. positive, negative 2. The opponent process theory of color states that: a. there are four pairs of photoreceptors that detect two opposing colors each b. cones are divided into receptors of three colors c. cones are designed to receive one of two colors and inhibit the other d. rods have lower visual acuity and oppose color vision 3. What is the iris of the eye? a. a vestigial structure that serves no function except for aesthetic value b. the muscle that adjusts the pupil, allowing more or less light into the eye c. the ligament that focuses light onto the retina d. the area at the back of the eye which houses photoreceptors 4. You are driving down the I-­‐10 and you see a tiny car in front of you. Your brain deduces that this small car is actually just a regular-­‐sized car far away. How did your brain perceive this depth? a. because of retinal disparity b. because the occipital lobe assembles 2-­‐D into 3-­‐D c. because of binocular cues available d. because of monocular cues available 5. Billy’s parents notice that he is making great grades in school and have learned his attendance in class has increased, after a period of time where his academic engagement was low. In an effort to maintain this desired level of engagement, his parents take away some of his responsibilities around the house. This is an example of what type of operant conditioning? a. Positive reinforcement b. Negative reinforcement c. Positive punishment d. Negative punishment 6. In REM sleep, we expect to see high activity in all of these places, except for the: a. hindbrain b. pons c. amygdala d. motor cortex 7. Jake is walking to class down Palm Walk and gets hit by an oncoming skateboarder. The skateboarder gets up quickly and books it, leaving Jake disheveled. In class, Jake sits down and another skateboarder put his board against the wall and sits next to Jake. Jake inches away from someone he thinks is “another ASU skateboarding douche.” He created distance because of his: a. perceptual category b. perceptual set c. bottom-­‐up processing d. escape-­‐avoidance conditioning 8. Which sensory system would include perceptions such as “salty,” “sweet,” and “bitter”? a. olfactory b. gustatory c. auditory d. kinesthesis 9. People who fall asleep drunk tend to have difficulty making it past stage ____ of sleep, resulting in a less-­‐than-­‐restful night’s sleep. This inhibits ____. a. two; the production of norepinephrine in REM sleep b. four; the production of cortisol in REM sleep c. two; the production of norepinephrine in stage four d. four; the production of cortisol in stage four 10. Little Albert’s conditioned fear response ______________ to other ______________ stimuli. a. generalized; conditioned b. discriminated; similar c. generalized; similar d. discriminated; conditioned 11. Learning via association is to ______, as learning via consequence in the environment is to ________. a. Skinner, Pavlov b. Pavlov, Skinner c. Bandura, Skinner d. Skinner, Bandura 12. Stage two of sleep is characterized by: a. delta waves b. alpha waves c. sleep spindles d. rapid eye movements 13. You’re driving through a dense fog on your way back to Tempe. You think you see someone up ahead of you but you’re not sure. Nervously, you slow down and turn on your fog lights. Your fog lights assist your brain in what? a. relative motion b. relative brightness c. linear perspective d. texture gradient 14. Which of these drugs contains the most addictive potential? a. LSD b. nicotine c. marijuana d. methamphetamine 15. You are a psychologist and a patient walks into your office. He says he’s been having some terrible dreams... Or so he thinks. He can’t seem to remember what happens at night, but his wife tells him he is waking up screaming and panicking. What would you tell him he is suffering from? a. dissociation b. sleep apnea c. night terrors d. nightmares 16. Slot machines utilize which schedule of intermittent reinforcement? a. fixed ratio b. fixed interval c. variable ratio d. variable interval 17. You are highly addicted to both drugs and sugary sweets, and your parents are really worried about you. After talking to an addiction psychologist, you are told that your problem stemmed from ___________, which has predisposed the __________ center of the brain to be vulnerable to addiction. a. family problems; depression b. potty training issues; control c. genetics; reward d. a traumatic accident; vestibulocochlear 18. Which is not true about the fovea? a. it contains mostly rods and very few cones b. it is the center of visual acuity c. it lies in the back of the eye d. it contains mostly cones and very few rods 19. We experience _______ in cognitive ability after switching from a traditional sleep schedule to a cat-­‐nap sleep schedule. a. an improvement b. a deficit c. marginal to no difference d. an absence 20. Classical Conditioning is learning via _________, while Operant Conditioning is learning via ___________. a. association; consequences b. observation; consequences c. consequences, association d. pairing; association 21. During stage 1 of sleep we may experience: a. hallucinations b. weightlessness c. alien abductions d. all of the above 22. What is bottom up processing? a. using prior knowledge to guide our sensations b. using prior expectations to guide our perceptions c. organizing stimuli into basic features and assembling them into a whole d. the process of sorting and interpreting stimuli from our sensory organs 23. What type of learning did Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment illustrate? a. observational learning b. fear conditioning c. escape/avoidance conditioning d. operant conditioning 24. Telling your child that they can eat a cookie (a high probability behavior) if they finish their vegetables at dinner (low probability behavior) best demonstrates which of the following? a. a token system b. feedback c. verbal praise d. the Premack Principle 25. Top-­‐down processing is to ______, as bottom-­‐up processing is to ______. a. inductive reasoning; deductive reasoning b. pattern recognition; expectations and motivations c. perceptual set; perceptual category d. perceptual category; perceptual set 26. List steps for sensation, in order as they occur: a. accessory structure modifies stimulus, coding from sensory nerve to CNS, transduction of stimulus energy to neural information, thalamus relays response, cortex receives input b. accessory structure modifies stimulus, thalamus relays response, coding from sensory nerve to CNS, transduction of stimulus energy to neural information, cortex receives input c. transduction of stimulus energy to neural information, accessory structure modifies stimulus, coding from sensory nerve to CNS, thalamus relays response, cortex receives input d. accessory structure modifies stimulus, transduction of stimulus energy to neural information, coding from sensory nerve to CNS, thalamus relays response, cortex receives input 27. List the three classes of addictive drugs, as described by Dr. Volkow in her podcast: a. opioids, depressants, sedative-­‐hypnotics b. stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines c. heroine, methamphetamine, cocaine d. opioids, stimulants, sedative-­‐hypnotics 28. In which stage would you be least likely to experience sleep-­‐walking? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3/4 d. REM sleep 29. Nicotine is more addictive than marijuana, even though marijuana is considered more toxic. Which of the following explanations does not contribute to this conclusion? a. You can marry cigarettes into everything you do b. Smoking cigarettes are more socially acceptable than smoking weed c. Conditioning (works with memory circuitry) d. Cigarettes contain significantly more harmful chemical agents than does weed 30. What are the functions of the two visual pathways? a. NEW: reflexive behavior in response to environment; OLD: conscious awareness b. NEW: conscious awareness; OLD: reflexive behavior in response to environment c. NEW: top-­‐down processing; OLD: bottom-­‐up processing d. NEW: bottom-­‐up processing; OLD: top-­‐down processing ...
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