Lecture 4-Hinduism, Part 2

Lecture 4-Hinduism, Part 2 - Lecture 4 I. Hinduism-Pt. 2 1...

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Lecture 4 Hinduism-Pt. 2 1 I. Changes in Brahmanism a. Dharma – sacred law i. Accommodated the reality of daily life ii. Everyone could understand it b. The Four Goals i. Kama (Desire) ii. Artha (Material goods) iii. Dharma iv. Moksha (Liberation of soul) c. The Three Ways of Salvation i. To achieve moksha ii. Not restricted to one caste iii. Marga or Yoga 1. Way of Works 2. Way of Knowledge 3. Way of Devotion d. Ashramas – 4 stages (especially for Brahmins) i. The Student ii. The Householder iii. The Hermit iv. The Sannyasin II. Four Goals and Four Stages a. The Student and Kama i. Nine-ish years old ii. Upanayana 1. Sacred cord which he makes himself 2. Marks status 3. Then he goes to a guru to study iii. Celibacy 1. To suppress desires, he must recite mantras 2. Upanayana supposed to prevent him from being brought down by desire iv. Student bachelor 1. In-between stage; between Student and Householder v. Kama (God with flower bow who fills heart with desire) 1. Kamasutra a. Focuses on the arts of love b. Tells about women/how to deal with women, etc. 2. Natyasutra b. The Householder and Artha i. Marriage obligatory 1. Brahmin not really respected without a wife and son ii. Kama and artha 1. Artha = Pursuit of material goods 2. Legitimate, but not meant to be the most satisfying thing on earth 3. Artha can be ruthless – “The big fish eats the little fish” iii. Perform rites iv. Must be careful of diet, not break caste rules v. Time to move to next stage when you have a grandson c. The Hermit and Dharma [Still occurs today, with key differences] i. Religious and moral law 1. Not the same for everyone 2. Code of Manu 3. Dharmasutra: Sacred law books
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Lecture 4 Hinduism-Pt. 2 2 ii. Life of the Hermit 1. Usually seclude themselves to unburden themselves of responsibilities of being a Householder 2. Should have amassed enough wealth for the son to take over 3. Wife can depend on the son, or can go with husband a. Both husband and wife are celibate. 4. Performs rites for people, serves at temples 5. Point is to focus on spiritual goals d. The Sannyasin and Moksha (Release from reincarnation; pure release) i. Nirvana (pure release) 1. Somewhere in between – out of cycle of rebirth but enlightened ii. Life of a Sannyasin 1. Should be a homeless wanderer 2. Renunciation of life 3. Wife becomes a widow because husband gives up past identity – his effigy is cremated 4. Give up claim to all possessions, name, status a. In today’s world, you are declared legally dead III. The Way of Works a. Karma Marga i. Supposed to produce a more ordered society ii. Most Hindus follow this path – it’s not overly emotional or intellectual iii. Ashramas iv. Sacrifices to the gods v. Code of Manu (200 BCE-200 CE) 1. Smriti – not divine; things that are remembered 2. Rites of passage vi. Shraddha Rites – Periodical offerings/memorial prayers to ancestral spirits with food 1. Without this rite, ancestors fade away 2. Pinda – rice balls pressed into cakes – you burn them
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 2860 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at N. Georgia.

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Lecture 4-Hinduism, Part 2 - Lecture 4 I. Hinduism-Pt. 2 1...

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