04 - Islam (Muhammad and Charlemagne)

04 - Islam (Muhammad and Charlemagne) - Muhammad and...

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Muhammad and Charlemagne 1 Origins of Islam Pre-Islamic Arabia – Trade: crossroads of three continents o Origins of cities on Red Sea coast o Trade in goods and ideas Different ideas from Europe, Africa, Asia Hundreds of idols in town center of Mecca Muhammad (born 570-ish) o Muhammad’s early life: Orphaned at fairly young age Uncle is one of the wealthiest, most respected merchants in Mecca Sirah Early biographies Not divinely revealed Khadijah When he was 25, Khadijah hired him to carry goods to Yemen They marry (she’s 40) o Muhammad starts experiencing “visitations” in the mountains near Mecca Gabriel gives him messages from God After 3 years of preaching, he only has 3 followers Making merchants angry (he was a “street preacher”) but he was protected by his uncle until his uncle’s death in 622 o Hijra – 622 (“flight”) After his uncle’s death, Muhammad and his followers flee to Medina Birth of Islam/Beginning of Muslim calendar Mecca and Medina are bitter rivals, so Medina welcomes him and gives him asylum o Medina and Mecca go to war Mecca had an army of 2,000, Medina had 500 Muhammad led Medina’s army; the fight ended in a draw Muhammad starts preaching and attracting more followers. o Muhammad’s return to Medina – 630 Muhammad leads a large army back to Mecca and defeats them Arab tradition was that the losers were killed and the women and children were enslaved Muhammad doesn’t follow the tradition; instead, he says God forgives the people of Mecca, so Mecca converted almost en masse to Islam Muhammad destroys all the idols in the city center o Muhammad’s death – 632 Before his death, he pulled together nearly the entire Arab peninsula into an Arab/Islamic state Terminology o Islam: From Arabic word asalama (“to surrender”) Mind, body, and soul to God o Muslim: Conjugation of asalama to “he/she/it has surrendered” o Arab: Nothing to do with religion—it’s an ethnicity (Arabian peninsula descendancy) Not all Arabs are Muslims and most Muslims are not Arabs. o Middle Eastern does not equate to Arab o Qur’an/Koran: Holy/divinely revealed text Divided into chapters (“surahs”) Very vague o Sunnah and Hadith: Sunnah is tradition, Hadith is the sayings of Muhammad
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Muhammad and Charlemagne 2 Not divinely revealed More secular Sunnah tends to be the more ceremonial aspect o Shari’ah: Islamic law Deviates from Qur’an, Sunnah, and Hadith Law not set in stone, so it leads to divisions within the Islamic faith o Fatwa: Decree (judicial decree) based on Shari’ah; legal pronouncement Five Pillars of Islam o 1—Shahada: La ilaha l’Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasul-Allah Basic statement of faith: One God, and Muhammad is God’s Prophet o 2—as-Salat: Prayer five times daily facing Mecca o 3—as-Sawm – Month of Ramadan Fasting; period of cleansing
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04 - Islam (Muhammad and Charlemagne) - Muhammad and...

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