07 - Creation of England and France

07 - Creation of England and France - 1 Creation of England...

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1 Creation of England and France Lecture 7 ENGLAND Goes back to Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (from the Danish peninsula) o Created a very fragmented England when they arrived o Angles = north o Saxons and Jutes = south o Settle into a series of kingdoms (7) in England (not including Scotland and Wales) Three main kingdoms emerge: Mercia, Northumbria, and Wessex End of 8 th century – Viking invasions from Norway and Denmark just when it looked like Mercia and Wessex were going to unite under one monarch o “Hit and run” attacks against coastal communities o Target: monasteries because of wealth o Eventually connect Europe by trade routes o Beginning in 9 th century, raids from Denmark became invasions Established themselves in east and middle of England Vikings stopped in progression across England in the Battle of Eddington (879) by Alfred the Great (king of Wessex) o First great defeat of the Vikings o Peace of Wedmore – Saxons divided England with the Vikings Vikings given the land to the north and east, called the Danelaw Alfred the Great rebuilt defenses during peacetime o Castles, defensive networks, “safety houses” o No place within Wessex where a Saxon wasn’t within one day of fortification o Vikings didn’t have the time or means to lay siege to fortifications Alfred pushes the Danes mostly out of England o Strengthens monarchy First king to be called “king of Angleland” o Could be considered the strongest monarch in Europe (compare to Carolingians) o Strong government that relies on interconnections of kings, nobles, and the church o 10 th century – Anglo-Saxon Renaissance – England was center of art, learning, literature (first vernacular national history written) o Model for King Arthur??? End of 10 th century = King Ethelred II the Unready o Reignites conflict with Vikings (1002) – St. Brice’s Day Massacre Paranoid Vikings would show back up and there would be revolt Declares all people of Danish descent within England would be killed At least several thousand were killed Murder of sister of the king of Denmark and her husband o King Swein of Denmark attacks and forces Ethelred and his wife, Emma, and their children to flee 1013 – Swein takes over England His successor Canute is elected and presses claim as king of England
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2 Creation of England and France Lecture 7 o 1016 – Ethelred dies, leaving Canute as sole claimant to the throne Denmark, Norway, and England under Canute’s power To legitimize claim to English throne, Canute marries Emma and they produce Edward the Confessor Canute’s reign = great prosperity (1013-1035) o When he dies, there is a period of conflict over who should take the throne. Finally, Edward the Confessor is the only remaining claimant.
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07 - Creation of England and France - 1 Creation of England...

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