10 - Crusades

10 - Crusades - 1 The Crusades Lecture 10 First time we...

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1 The Crusades Lecture 10 First time we have large-scale warfare in the name of Christianity As a result of Church reforms, NOT in reaction to Muslim conquering of the Holy Land ISLAMIC THREATS Islamic world rapidly expanding by the 11th century o Lots of territory covered o Muslims didn’t encroach into Europe after the Battle of Tours So, Europe felt safe after the 8 th century Safe feeling changes with the Battle of Manzikert o Last of the holdouts for the Byzantine Empire o 1071: Byzantine army is almost completely destroyed o Shows Europe that Byzantium is weak and this scares them Unsafe feeling increases with the loss of Antioch in 1085 o Gateway to the northern Levant o Important for Christians (holds the oldest church in the world) Byzantine emperor calls on the west to help o Byzantine Empire has shrunk to only a sliver of Asia Minor o Alexius III Comnenus , the emperor, begs the west for help REASONS FOR CRUSADING Coming of the Seljuk Turks o New converts to Islam who had replaced the Abbasids o Very conservative o Viewed Christians as People of the Book who should have already converted Christians began experiencing persecution If you go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, you got a “plenerary indulgence” – complete remittance of sin up to that point 2 nd Son Theory : the 2 nd sons of nobles wouldn’t inherit, so they would make their fortunes by going into battle/on Crusade o Now, we’re beginning to realize that in many cases, it was actually the first sons who went because Crusading was so expensive Pilgrimage – theory that violent warriors needed an indulgence to save their immortal souls o But Crusaders didn’t call themselves “pilgrims,” but people going on pilgrimage within a Crusade did; Crusaders called themselves “soldiers” Did Crusaders intend to go to the Holy Land? o Early Crusading documents stress aiding the Byzantine Empire in holding off Muslim expansion Jerusalem is mentioned only in passing Militia Christi : “Christ’s Soldiers” o Pre-10 th century: “army” of people who used prayer against enemies o Reconquista changed idea to actual soldiers Also may have shifted the purpose of the Crusades Gregory VII (1073) was the first to grant soldiers an indulgence in killing Muslims as an act of “holy war” 1095, Nov. 27: Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont , calls for Crusade (First Crusade) o Calls for declaration of holy war, not a pilgrimage o Urban’s speech supposedly moved the crowd so much, they unanimously announced their intention to “take up the cross” FIRST CRUSADE Two sections: Nobles’ Crusade and Peasants’ Crusade Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans Avoir led the Peasants’ Crusade
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2 The Crusades Lecture 10 o Mostly poor, unarmed peasants that made it to Asia Minor before being mowed down by Muslims Nobles’ Crusade – Well-trained knights, nobles o Most successful Crusade Several small Crusades between the two parts – commoners
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10 - Crusades - 1 The Crusades Lecture 10 First time we...

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