HA Clinical Study Guide

HA Clinical Study Guide - HA Clinical Study Guide Final...

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HA Clinical Study Guide: Final Exam Class I (ch. 6, 9) VRE – vancomycin-resistant enterococcus Bacteriostatic – an agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria Transmission-based precautions – intended for patients with documented or suspected transmissible infections, in addition to standard precautions, three types: air-borne, droplet, contact Orthostatic hypotension – temporary drop in blood pressure (>20 mmHg) due to change in position (such as standing) Hypertension – >140/90 When is hand washing required? What is the appropriate time frame for each? After touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and contaminated items, whether or not you were wearing gloves. Immediately after removing gloves and between patients, may need to wash hands between procedures on the same patient to prevent cross-contamination. When is glove use recommended? When touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, items contaminate with these, mucous membranes, and non-intact skin. Blood Pressure Pulse Respiratory Rate Infant ~80/46 130 20-40 Early Childhood ~95/65 100 20-30 School-Age Child ~105/70 90 16-25 Young Adult ~120/70 50-100 12-20 Elderly ~140/80 60-100 16-25 What affects blood pressure? Cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, volume of circulating blood, viscosity, elasticity of vessel walls When should you assess for a pulse deficit? Weak contraction of ventricles that occurs with atrial fibrillation, premature beats, and heart failure Describe Korotkof phases I-V. I = tapping (systolic), II = swooshing, III = knocking, IV = abrupt miffling, V = silence (diastolic) Class II (ch. 10, 19, 20) Asystole – weakening or cessation of systole
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Systole – contraction of the heart Diastole – relaxation of the heart, cavities fill with blood PMI – point of maximal impulse, 5 th or 6 th intercostal space at the MCL S1 and S2 – normal heart sounds, S1 = start of systole (lub), S2 = closing of semilunar valves (dub) S3 – occurs with heart failure and volume overload S4 – occurs with coronary artery disease Sinus dysrhythmia – abnormal heart rhythm Pulse pressure – systolic-diastolic BP Class III (ch. 18) Tachypnea – increased rate of respiration Dyspnea – difficult or labored breathing Hyperpnea – abnormally rapid or deep breathing Hyperventilation – excessive rate and depth of respiration, leads to abnormal loss of CO 2 Bradypnea – abnormally slow breathing Apnea – transient cessation of respiration Crackles – heard when sections of alveoli that are not fully aerated (in people who are asleep or elderly), heard when they’re expanded with a few deep breaths Rhonchi – whistling sound heard on auscultation when the airways are partially obstructed Stridor – harsh vibrating sound heard on respiration when airways are obstructed Describe differences in length of inspiration and expiration in different areas of the thorax: Bronchial – expiration > inspiration Bronchovesicular – inspiration = expiration
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course NUR 121 taught by Professor Wood during the Fall '07 term at BC.

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HA Clinical Study Guide - HA Clinical Study Guide Final...

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