cognition 2 - Memory and Context Encoding Recognition...

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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 1 Memory and Context Encoding, Recognition & Recall Ebbinghaus and memory for lists Analysis followed by synthesis: analyze small discrete memory tasks Encoding, getting information into memory followed by retrieval or recognition – making use of the stored  information
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 2 What is the normal role of recognition? Orientation to place, knowing where you are  Guidance of social behavior Recognition of individuals Comprehension of language Guidance of productive, protective, defensive behavior
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 3 What is the normal role of recall? Orientation to time  Guidance of social behavior Recall of information about individuals Expressive use of language Guidance of productive, protective, defensive behavior
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 4 How does recognition occur? Top – down and bottom – up processes Top – down processes Expectation, memory, priming Context effects are priming effects Bottom – up processes Stimulus driven
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 5 How does recognition occur? Top-down processes are guided by schemas Concepts, categories, structural descriptions Presence of elements of a schema cues recognition,  retrieval of other elements
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 6 How does recognition occur? Knowledge of most familiar things is multi-modal Pavio & dual codes: verbal & visual knowledge of many things is likely to be  represented in multiple sensory codes Activation of one representation, in one sensory  modality, spreads to other representations of the  thing
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 7 Massaro’s theory:  FLMP Fuzzy logical model of perception Stimulus information and context information  provide INDEPENDENT sources of information  about the identity Independent sources of information are combined to  provide a best guess of what the stimulus might be
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 8 Context effects in perception of speech Speech perception is categorical We perceive meaning, not sound We perceive phrases How any input is heard depends on context….what  comes before it ….. and what comes after it
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 9 Context effects in perception of speech Syntax is the structural description of grammatical  utterances – phrases or sentences Our knowledge of syntax is one source of top-down  processing of speech
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 10 Much speech is ambiguous Jimmy Hendrix “Purple Haze” “Excuse me while I touch the sky”  OR “Excuse me while I touch this guy”
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2/18/2007 Memory and Context 11 Warren & Phonemic Restoration
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  • Spring '07
  • INGATE
  • Infant Learning, declarative learning, RoveeCollier

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