cognitionfinal

cognitionfinal - What is cognitivepsychology? Thescie...

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Unformatted text preview: What is cognitivepsychology? Thescie ntific study of how them functions to ind producebe havior Thestudy of how m is re d in thebrain ind alize 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 1 Arethe fundam ntal principle in cognitive re e s psychology? havior/action is there of thebrain's activity with sult Be re se pre ntations of theworld (including inte state rnal s) ly-atte d-to e rie , thebrain form nde xpe nce s Through action and active re se pre ntations of inform ation about theworld. re s pre ntations m beform d about thesam ay e e Diffe nt type of re se obje e nts, place or conce cts, ve s, pts. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 2 Foundation Principle of C s ognition re s , pre nt, Diffe nt brain structure analyze re se storeand proce diffe nt type of inform ss re s ation. s rce d e d Thebrain form both pe ption-base and m aning-base re se pre ntations. rce d dge pre ntations usethesam e Pe ption-base knowle re se brain structure as thebasic proce s of pe ption. s sse rce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 3 Foundation Principle s ognitiveproce s e sse volve fromsim r se d ple nsory and m otor C proce s to guidee ctiveaction sse ffe ognitivecapabilitie for le s, arning, re e be m m ring, com unicating m C giveorganism survival advantage s s s rve r-orde and highe r r-orde r Brain structure se both lowe functions (control of m m nt and control of thought; ove e pe ption and proble -solving) rce m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 4 What arethebasic cognitiveproce s? sse Pe ption rce Action Le arning - m m e ory C onsciousne Atte ss ntion Em otion 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 5 What doe an organismhaveto de rm /de /know s te ine cide about obje it e cts ncounte rs? What is it? re Whe is it? What do I do now? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 6 Action ognition be with action. gins C s Action include tim S ulus or input fromworld sponseof organism Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 7 Me ory m tim sponseassociations m beinnate(inse ay cts, S ulus re re s, am ptile phibians) or le d (m othe cre arne ost r ature s). arning m s it possiblefor an organismto survivein a ake Le m variablee ore nvironm nt. e ats ice C can catch m or birds or fish....or bugs m ake atureto do som thing be r the e tte Me ory m s it possiblefor a cre ne tim . xt e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 8 C onsciousne - Atte ss ntion sponse to ne r-e s ve ncounte d- be e nts cannot re fore ve Re beplanne in advance d . onsciousne m s it possibleto construct and ss ake C e cutenove re xe l sponse (things that havenot be n s e donebe ) to nove e nts. fore l ve e y. S arching for hiding pre 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 9 Two kinds of long-te le rm arning prove e in pe m nt rform ance Im atching ball Dog: C rson: Walking, re ading Pe dural Le arning Proce onscious re ction colle C cognizing m r aste Dog: Re rson: Re cognizing dog Pe clarativeLe arning De 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 10 Proce dural vs. De clarativeMe ory m Procedural Memory Knowing how tting faste and m accuratewith practice r ore Ge rce rce kill arning Motor, Pe ptual, & Pe ptual-Motor S Le Declarative Memory Knowing what pre ntations Activating additional re se n s e e ncounte d re Ofte include knowing that som thing has be n e pre viously. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 11 What aretwo m type of long-te ajor s rm mm e ory? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sm e antic and se nsory Ve and propositional rbal Proce dural and De clarative Abstract and concre te I don't know 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 12 Arethe othe kinds of m m re r e ory? Atkinson & S chiffrin's 3-stagem l ode Badde y's Working Me ory le m Phonological loop Articulatory loop & phonological store Visuospatial ske pad tch C ntral Exe e cutive Buffe r Pavio's dual-codethe se ory: paratere se pre ntations & store for ve & visual inform s rbal ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 13 Exam s of two kinds of m m Le ple e ory: arning to re upside ad down print (Kole 1976) rs, S nts re 200 page of upsidedown print; a ye late cam back, re ate re tude ad s ar r, e pe d ading, te d for ste re cognition. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 14 S e of re pe d ading upsidedown print incre d ase with practice ase e I ncre d spe d with practice is an indicator of proce dural le arning. Eve norm n al re ading spe d incre d with e ase practice . arning function is a log Thele function. I nve d te rte xt Norm te al xt 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 15 S nts re tude cognize article the re in upside d s y ad down print Me ory for conte of passage that havebe n re is an m nt s e ad e pleof de xam clarativem m e ory. Kole had stude sort article into thosethe had re upside rs nts s y ad down twice only a ye prior, only re ntly, both a ye prior , ar ce ar and re ntly, and ne r se n be . ce ve e fore 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 16 Which is thedistorte face d ? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 17 Looking at face re s, cognizing individuals, involve two m m syste s s e ory m Two kinds of le arning/m m areinvolve e ory d Proce dural m m how wescan face re e ory s, cognition of a face as onewe se n be 've e fore De clarativem m what were e be about thepe e ory mm r rson: nam , last e e ncounte ke facts r, y 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 18 Upright Thatche r Was on right 05/13/09 Was on le ft I ntroduction to C ognition 19 Why are webe r at proce n't tte ssing upside down face s? Weloseinform ation about spatial re lationships. Our re se pre ntation of face include s s orie ntation, and spatial re lationships be e e m nts of face twe n le e s. Vie wing upsidedown face re s quire s too m transform any ations m ore than can beaccom odate in m d working m m e ory. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 20 C ognition is theguidancesyste for action m m Guidancesyste : rce cts rnal s Pe ption of obje and/or inte state ove e Planning and initiation of m m nt ove e ffe ove e Monitoring and control of m m nt, e cts of m m nt m nt m riphe com nts and ce ral pone ntral se rvom chanism e s Move e syste : pe s, e ndons, m s, se uscle nsory and m otor Bone ligam nts, joints, te ne urons re llumstorere se pre ntations of le d actions, arne Basal ganglia, ce be sm ooth thee cution xe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 21 C ognition is theguidancesyste for action m Thepurposeof cognition is to pe rforme ctiveactions ffe in theworld. Effe ctivephysical actions de nd on pe com x m ntal actions. ple e Ne le xt cturee xplore a sim action-guidancesyste , s ple m and contrasts it with thehum action-guidance an syste . m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 22 S nsory/pe ptual syste s havetwo tasks e rce m What is it? re Whe is it? ignal / obje re ct cognition classification into S cate s of functional significanceaccording to gorie fe ature s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 23 S nsory capability de rm s theworld e te ine diblespatial and te poral re m solution in Birds: incre vision be causeof re ptor de ce nsity and re sponse characte ristics e any nsitiveto ultraviole light t Be s, m birds, fish, se ice e Dogs, m , livein a world of sm ll 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 24 What is im portant to toads? With apologie to Ewart, e al, 1987 s t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 25 I n theS pring, othe toads... r But vision plays no role in a toad's sex life.... It is conducted by sound and touch With apologies to Ewart, et al, 1987 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 26 Avoiding pre dators With apologie to Ewart, e al, 1987 s t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 27 De cting and e te ating pre y With apologie to Ewart, e al, 1987 s t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 28 What visual stim e be uli licit havior from toads? oving obje (he hogs, pe ) e e cts dge ople licit scape Largem m oving obje (bugs) e pre capture cts licit y S all m be havior cts r s) licit Moving obje talle than wide(snake e avoidance fe /de nsiveposture 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 29 S and m m nt de rm whe r an ize ove e te ine the obje is pre ct dator or pre y ats oving food Only e m ing cts, ps r Avoids loom obje jum to a darke location With apologie to Ewart, e al, 1987 s t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 30 What thefrog's e te thefrog's ye lls brain Le ttvin, Maturana, McC ollough & Pitts, 1959, Proce dings fromtheI nstituteof Radio Engine ring e e Re corde re d sponse of ne s urons re tinal ganglion ce lls fromte inations in optic te rm ctumof le opard frogs, in re sponseto a varie of m ty oving obje cts 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 31 Be haviorally, how do our visual syste s com m pare to frogs' & toads'? Re sponseto a buzzing fly Hum an: orie nt fixate swat Hungry frog: orie (no fove so no nt a, fixation) zap I ntroduction to C ognition 32 05/13/09 Anatom ically, how do our visual syste s m com pareto toads'? Hum visual pathways an Re > supe colliculus tina rior > LGN > occipital lobeof corte x > Plv > parie lobeof corte tal x Thalam us 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 33 Hum an: Visual fie ove lds rlap Right visual fie ld proje to le cts ft te poral re and m tina right nasal re tina. Axons of ganglion ce fromnasal lls re tinas cross at the optic chiasm . Each visual fie has ld its prim ary re se pre ntation on the oppositesideof the brain. Optic nerve Optic chiasm Optic tract Lateral geniculate nucleus Optic radiation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Primary visual cortex 34 corte x Frontal Parie tal Occipital basal ganglia thalam us LGN Pl S C m id-brain Hum S m of sim an: che atic plifie visual pathways: re d tinal ganglion ce proje to lls ct thethalam and m us id-brain. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Eye re , tina, e ye m s uscle 35 Anatom ically, how do our visual syste s m com pareto toads'? Frog/toad visual pathways Re > optic te tina ctum(supe colliculus) rior > pre ctal thalam -te us Te nce lon le phe Pre ctal thalam -te us C re llum e be Optic te ctum 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 36 Anatom ically, how do our visual syste s com m pareto toads'? Thegre ne at uro-anatom Pe Ram C de ist dro on ajal scribe the d com tecrossing of ple optic ne s in thefrog, ove 100 rve r ye ago ars But thevisual fie of thee s do not ove lds ye rlap. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 37 Anatom ically, how do our visual syste s com m pareto toads'? Visual fie of toad/frog e s do not ove lds ye rlap.... Thefrog doe not se im s in theway that wedo s e age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 38 S what do frog e s do for thefrog? o ye Rods & cone conne to re s ct tinal ganglion ce (via bipolar and lls am acrinece lls) Re tinal ganglion ce havere ptivefie of varying size and lls ce lds s varying re sponsecharacte ristics A. S ustaine contrast de ctors d te B. Ne conve de ctors t xity te C. Moving e de ction dge te D. Ne dim ing de ction t m te E. Othe without distinct re ptivefie rs, ce lds 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 39 S how doe it work? o s A. S ustaine contrast de ctors: re d te sponds whe an obje n ct e r lighte or darke than background m s into ithe r r ove re ptivefie 2 diam te ce ld, e r B. Ne conve de ctors: re t xity te sponds to m m nt of sm ove e all obje 3 or le m ct ss oving through fie ld...will NOT re spond to straight e large than fie doe re dge r ld; s spond to corne or r conve of a boundary; ~ 7 in diam te xity e r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 40 S how doe it work? o s A. Moving e de ctors: se dge te paratere sponse to s le ading and trailing e s; fre ncy of firing dge que incre s with spe d of obje ~12 diam te ase e ct; e r B. Ne dim ing de ctors: faste re t m te st sponse re , spond to sudde re n duction in illum ination, ~15 diam te e r C. Othe appe to m asuredarkne ove wideare rs: ar e ss r a, long tim pe e riod 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 41 Optic fibe m there on them rs ap tina idbrain Axons of ganglion ce e on optic te lls nd ctum e , xhibiting a continuous m of there ap tina Four laye of te ination e ope rs rm ach rational group of ganglion ce te inate in a se lls rm s paratelaye of the r te ctum m , aintaining them apping All four m arealigne aps d (I f se re fibe grow back to corre locations) ve d, rs ct 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 42 What doe it m an? s e Output of there is a se of analyse of thevisual tina t s im age Le ttvin, e al, (1959) characte d conve de ctors t rize xity te as "bug de ctors" te 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 43 What has be n le d sincethe e arne n? Ewe (1987, 2004) rt S ulation of site in thepre ctal thalam e tim s -te us licits orie nting m m nt, snapping, ducking, jum ove e ping, de nsivestance fe Discove d ce in pre ctal thalam se re lls -te us nsitiveto configural fe ature of obje (talle than wide s cts r ) Othe ne r urons inte gratevisual m inform ap ation with body se e inform gm nt ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 44 Ewe se rt: nsory m inte otor rfacetranslate s pe ption into action rce re ulus rtie Affe nt sidehas stim analysis prope s for "re cognition" and localization re s cific otor rns Effe nt sideactivate spe m patte om and le m ce s : C m re asing syste re ive input from om and le e ts urons ope rating likeAND gate in s C m e m nts: se of ne som syste s and likeOR gate in othe e m s rs cts ulus Evaluateaspe of a stim m onally m otivate d?) Motivational syste (hungry? Horm 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 45 Toads don't do m uch.... Duck p Jum fe tance De nsiveS Turn Mate Pre y nap S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 46 Program ing a toad sim m ulation and asse ssing its accuracy is straight forward sponse arepre nt fromm tam s se e orphosis Re rgo inor ve e Unde m de lopm ntal tuning 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 47 How can toads survive ? ocial be havior lim d to m ite ating S productivestrate doze to thousands of gy: ns Re offspring with e fe ach rtilization, m al pare inim ntal inve e stm nt lative littleto le lim d be ly arn, ite havioral range Re adapte to e d nvironm nt e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 48 ...and higher vertebrates are different from frogs, and lizards, and snakes.... om x lationships C ple social re n Ofte largesocial groups cognition of individuals, m m of past inte e ory ractions, Re inte tation and pre rpre diction of be havior ple d xte d Morecom xity associate with e nde de nde pe ncy 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 49 ...more social complexity requires more m m and m com x ope e ory ore ple rations dural m m m besupple e d with e ory ust m nte Proce de clarativem m e ory Language asoning, proble solving m Planning, re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 50 Complexity of cognition involves.... pre nting inform ation Re se rating on inform ation Ope ation? What is inform duce rtainty (S hannon) ...that which re s unce s son) ...that which change us (Bate haracte ristics of theoutput of a proce that are ss C inform ativeabout theinput to theproce and thenature ss of theproce (Lose , 1998) ss e ws e ookieMonste r "Ne or facts about som thing" C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 51 Information Information corresponds to objects and events Information exists independent of a receiver of information Knowledge is stored or represented information Brains store / represent two types of knowledge Knowledge about objects, people, events, ideas: Knowing what Knowledge about how to do things (walk, ride a bike, read, play the piano): Knowing how These forms of knowledge interact constantly and often in complex, multi-layered ways 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 52 Basic Proce s of C sse ognition: Me Re se ntal pre ntation C nt, C and Me onte ode dium C s ode AT C C HAT GATO QI TTAH Me dium pe ch, r, walk, finge signs r S e ink on pape chalk on side 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 53 Basic Processes of Cognition: Mental Representation Inform ation can bere se d m ntally in diffe nt code ve pre nte e re s: rbal/acoustic, visual, haptic e ation can bere se d in m than onecode pre nte ore Thesam inform All code arere se d in thesam ne m dium s pre nte e ural e lle cific rve ne s) Location (Mue r's doctrineof spe ne e rgie patial arrange e m nt S que Fre ncy of firing Them dia of brain subsyste s affe which code can bere se d, how long thecode are e m ct s pre nte s available and how acce , ssiblethecode arefor re val. s trie Thefocus of cognitivepsychology is code and proce s rathe than ne m dia of storage s dure r ural e and ne m chanism of proce ural e s ssing. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 54 Basic Proce s of C sse ognition: Me Re se ntal pre ntation I nform ation A. B. C. D. E. I s not a quantifiableconce pt I s thesam thing as knowle e dge Re s unce duce rtainty ** Noneof theabove I don't know 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 55 Basic Proce s of C sse ognition: Me Proce s ntal dure ognition involve re s coding and com putation, m ost C hidde fromaware ss n ne rce pre ntation Pe iving theworld, constructing a re se of physical re ality, re quire constant com x s ple com putation havior re quire constant s Acting in theworld be com x com ple putation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 56 Visual and Ve C s rbal ode Pavio (1971, 1986): Dual codethe ory: se paratere se pre ntations for ve and visual rbal inform ation S anta (1977) e rim nt de onstrate diffe nce be e visual and ve re se xpe e m s re s twe n rbal pre ntations Two conditions: Ge e condition, Ve condition om tric rbal Participants studie an array of thre shape with onece re be theothe two d e s, nte d low r Or, in Ve condition: thre words in thesam spatial array rbal e e The pre nte with oneof four te arrays. Thetask was to ve that thete array had the n, se d st rify st S AME ELEMENTSas thestudy array. Triangle S quare 05/13/09 C ircle I ntroduction to C ognition 57 Visual and Ve C s: S rbal ode anta (1977) S tudy array Te Arrays st Triangle Te Arrays st Triangle S quare Circle S quare C ircle S tudy array Triangle Arrow C ircle TriangleCircleS quare 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition TriangleC Arrow ircle 58 S anta (1977) C ontrasting pre dictions for ge e and ve om tric rbal re se pre ntations I n thege e condition, re om tric sponse should befaste s st whe te arrays are n st : S ee m nts, sam configuration am le e e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 59 S anta (1977) Re sults Re action tim (s) e I n thege e condition, te om tric st arrays that pre rve the se d spatial arrange e of the m nt study array we re re cognize d m quickly. ore I n theve condition, te rbal st arrays in theline ar arrange e we re m nt re cognize d m quickly. ore Geometric Verbal S econfiguration am Line configuration ar 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 60 S anta (1977) Re sults Re action tim (s) e The re se sults sugge that visual and ve st rbal inform ation arere se d diffe ntly: pre nte re Visual inform ation is e ncode with spatial position d Geometric S econfiguration am Verbal Ve inform rbal ation is e ncode according to line d ar orde r. Line configuration ar 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 61 Roland & Fribe (1985) rg Re arch participants m ntally re arse a word jingleOR a routein the se e he d ir ne ighborhood asure change in blood flow in diffe nt brain are d s re as Me Re arsing a routeactivate cortical are associate with: he d as d Vision occipital corte x S patial proce ssing in parie corte tal x Me ory in te poral corte m m x Planning in frontal corte x Re arsing a jingleactivate cortical are associate with he d as d pe ch x a) S e production - in frontal corte (Broca's are ssing poste parie te poral re rior tal m gion Languageproce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 62 Diffe nt parts of thebrain re ss rbal ation and Proce ve and visual inform rbal ation is proce d in diffe nt ways sse re Ve and visual inform 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 63 S tructureand organization of thene rvous syste m pinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, interneurons, anterior horn S fle s, fle s Re xe cortical inhibition of re xe Brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain Hindbrain: postural reflexes, vital reflexes, arousal Me dulla Pons Re ticular form ation: Re ticular activating syste m C re llum skille m pe e be : d otor rform anceand lots m ore Midbrain: attention, orienting reflexes, motor control, drives ctum te e , gm ntum Te brain: sensation, perception, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, thought, Fore planning, philosophy, lite criticism rary ... us, us, bic m re x, thalam hypothalam lim syste , basal ganglia, ce bral corte corpus callosum 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 64 S tructureof thespinal cord: siteof thesim st ne com ple ural putations, spinal re xe fle s Re xe can (som tim s) beinhibite by cortical fle s e e d input. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 65 Reflex Arc 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 66 Anatom of brain y C x divide into two he isphe s orte d m re four lobe s Frontal Parie tal Occipital Te poral m S ub-cortical structure s: C re llum e be C orpus callosum Thalam hypothalam pituitary gland us, us, Basal ganglia: putam n, caudate e nucle globus pallidus us, ygdyla, hippocam fornix pus, Am ctum Te gm ntum Te e Walte C , Univ. of Chicago r rane Brain ste : m Pons dulla Me 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 67 Amygdala Temporal lobe Hippocampus 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 68 Hippocampus 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 69 Hippocampus Amygdala 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 70 Anatom of brain: De p brain, basal ganglia y e Walte C , Univ. of Chicago r rane 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 71 Basal Ganglia Anatom and function Thebasal ganglia conne to thecorte and thalam and organizetheinitiation y ct x us and tim of m -drive "m ing uscle n otor" m m nts of thebody. ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 72 Basal Ganglia Anatom and function y Thebasal ganglia areim portant in initiating and re gulating m m nt. I t is be ing cle that the ove e com ar basal ganglia arealso involve in highe d r-orde r cognitivefunctions. De rioration of ne te urons in thebasal ganglia re sults in inability to control e otions, thoughts m and im pulse as we as m m nt. s ll ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 73 Lim syste , emotion, memory, thereptilian brain, closely associated with thesenseof bic m sm ll e Diffe nt scie re ntists group brain. structure diffe ntly...onelist of lim structure is like to s re bic s ly diffe fromanothe ... ALL will contain am r r ygdala and hippocam pus 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 74 Exte Anatom of brain: Cortical are rnal y as 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 75 Topographic re se pre ntation in som atose nsory corte and m corte x otor x Walte C , Univ. of Chicago r rane 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 76 Primary motor cortex (M1) Hip Trunk Arm Hand Foot Face Tongue Larynx 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 77 Motor & Somatosensory Maps: notice the differences 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 78 Flow of Information in Cognitive Processing S nsory input flows fromre ptors to m e ce idbrain, thalam us and am ygdala Fromthalam to corte us x Fromthalam to parie corte and prim se us tal x ary nsory corte x...to association corte x...two pathways.... Oneto te poral corte for re m x cognition ve ntral stre am Oneto parie corte for localization dorsal stre tal x am Fromam ygdala to corte m x, idbrain, hypothalam if input is e otionally salie us m nt Cortical proce ssing to de if and how to re cide spond..... In thefrontal corte a re x, sponsepatte is se cte or cre d, initiate and continuously rn le d ate d, re calibrate OR inhibite d d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 79 Action A brain m ust: 1. De ct and locate te 2. Orde se r nsory input into a re se pre ntation of fe ature of re s ality; 3. Re spond 4. Makejudgm nts, le and think e arn, 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 80 Action Move e is involuntary or voluntary m nt 1. Re xe areinvoluntary m m nts m diate at spinal or subfle s ove e e d cortical le ls ve Voluntary m m nt: C ove e ortical and sub-cortical structure are s involve d 1. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 81 Movement is voluntary or involuntary Re xe areinvoluntary m m nts, unconditione re fle s ove e d sponse to stim s uli S eareharm om -avoidancem chanism e blink, hand e s ye withdrawal Fast re sponseto a singlesim stim ple ulus Occur without conscious de cision to pe rformtheaction May bem onosynaptic pate re x or m llar fle ulti-synaptic 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 82 Two Kinds of Motor Move e m nts fle s Re xe fle Re x arc r fle s ay Othe re xe m involve plicate m m nts ge rate by ce d ove e ne d ntral patte ge rators rn ne com in spinal cord. onal re sponse Horm fle s ay com d sponse to nove s l Re xe m be econditione re inputs. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 83 Reflexes are involuntary movements Four functions, be aware ss low ne 1. Withdrawal fromharm 2. Adjust body param te in changing e rs conditions 3. Movebody toward inform ativestim ulus orie ntation re xe fle s 4. Ve stigial functions 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 84 Re xe areinvoluntary m m nts fle s ove e Four functions be aware ss low ne Withdrawal fromharm e rs Adjust body param te in changing conditions stibular re xe in brainste and ce be fle s m re llumke p e Ve us balance as wewalk, particularly ove une n d r ve te rrain stibular ocular re x cause e s to m fle s ye ove Ve oppositethedire ction of he m m nt, fixing im ad ove e age on re tina 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 85 Re xe areinvoluntary m m nts fle s ove e Four functions be aware ss low ne Withdrawal fromharm Adjust body param te to m e rs aintain pe rform ancein changing conditions Move body toward informative stimulus orientation reflexes Superior colliculus in midbrain moves eyes/ eyes and head toward novel visual stimulus Inferior colliculus moves head and eyes toward a novel sound Ve stigial functions 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 86 Reflexes are involuntary movements Some reflexes have only vestigial (leftover) functions (in humans) Horripilation, piloerection, pilomotor reflex in response to cold, fear, emotional arousal (goose ps in Fallujah) bum Still functional in fur and feather-covered animals 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 87 Voluntary Movements Require Perception of target Awareness of location of movable body part Ability to aim movement of body part Ability to detect errors and re-adjust, (use feedback) Ability to use feedback to control movement of body part 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 88 Voluntary m m nt syste ove e m Them pathways originatein thebrain or brainstem otor and de nd down thespinal cord to control thea-motor neurons. sce a-motor neurons in theve ntral horns of thespinal cord se the axons out nd ir via thespinal roots and dire control them s. ctly uscle Them pathways can control posture re xe and m otor , fle s, uscletone as we as the , ll conscious voluntary m m nts ove e "pyramidal system", be with thelargepyram ne gins idal urons of them otor corte trave through thepyram of thebrainste , and finally e on or ne x, ls ids m nds ar thea-m ne otor urons. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 89 Voluntary m m nt syste ove e m The anatomy: ary otor d prim m pathway also calle thecorticospinal pathway. x nds . pathway starts in corte and e in thespine starts in theprecentral gyrus, the fold of cortex just anterior (in front of) to the central sulcus. The precentral gyrus has many names: primary motor cortex, Brodmann's area 4, M1, etc. It sends most of the fibers of the corticospinal tract;, but other cortical areas contribute as well. One such area is area 3a, part of primary somatosensory cortex, which is hidden down inside the central sulcus. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 90 Motor S mfor Voluntary Move e (Actions) yste m nts When a familiar voluntary action is performed: 1. Planning: a representation of a body-part posture or sequence of postures is retrieved Cortical areas Parietal cortex - somatosensory cortex & spatial guidance of movement Premotor and supplementary motor cortex 2. Performance: muscle movements are initiated to move the body-part(s) into the represented posture(s) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 91 Cortical Motor S m yste 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 92 Planning An Action -frontal corte de x: cision to act Pre tal x Parie corte urons re spond to both visual and tactileinputs Ne d le ong I nput use in activating and se cting am plans Premotor (visual guidance) and supplementary motor cortex (both parts of frontal corte x) le Activation and se ction of plans urons re spond whe thesam action is pe n e rform d or e Mirror ne obse d rve 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 93 Planning An Action Frontal corte de x: cision to act Parie corte tal x urons re spond to both visual and tactileinputs Ne d le ong I nput use in activating and se cting am plans m x: ove e Pre otor corte visual guidanceof m m nt upple e m ntary m corte m m nts not otor x: ove e S de nde upon visual input (you can scratch your pe nt nosein thedark) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 94 Hie rarchical Organization om x rns ove e C ple patte of m m nts can bebuilt up by com bining postureplans into a singlem program otor . : e Advantageof largeprogram spe d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 95 Motor S mfor Voluntary Move e (Actions) yste m nts Planning rform ance Pe Motor cortex and basal ganglia aim and initiate body movement Cerebellum programs muscle movements 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 96 Dam : Motor and S atose age om nsory C x orte age otor x ap) s m gia, Dam to m corte (m cause he iple norm voluntary m m nt of body part al ove e corre sponding to m dam is not possible ap age . b ve d b sults be causethe I f lim is se re a phantomlim re body m is unchange ap d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 97 Execution: Four Motor subsystems otion Locom x Motor corte Manipulation x Motor corte Vocalization a Broca's are Visual Fixation and tracking ye lds Frontal e fie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 98 Motor S mfor Voluntary Move e (Actions) yste m nts Planning tal x Parie corte m m ntary m corte otor x Pre otor and/or supple e rform ance Pe x Motor corte and basal ganglia aimand initiatebody m m nt ove e e be s usclem m nts ove e C re llumprogram m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 99 Cerebellum otor s ooth m m nts by ove e A m programproduce sm spe cifying a pre ly tim d se nceof m cise e que uscle contractions. stibuloce be re llumcontains re xe for fle s Ve m aintaining balanceand coordinating e ye m m nts (ve ove e stibular-ocular re x). fle pinoce be re llum& ne re llumturn m oce be otor S plans into m program otor s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 100 Motor syste is he rarchical and re m te dundant dundant source of plans s Re m xte Pre otor (e rnal) upple e m ntary Motor (inte rnal) S dundant source of lim inform s b ation Re Visual sthe Kine tic dundant ways of e cuting and controlling lim xe b Re m m nts ove e x Motor corte Basal Ganglia e be C re llum 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 101 Basal Ganglia Thebasal ganglia conne to thecorte and thalam and organizethe ct x us initiation and tim of m -drive "m ing uscle n otor" m m nts of the ove e body....and of thoughts 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 102 Basal Ganglia Disorde of thebasal ganglia: rs ase Huntington's Dise ase Parkinson's Dise tte yndrom e Toure 's S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 103 Basal Ganglia: Motor functions Basal ganglia, with thece be , control thetim and calibration of m m nt re llum ing ove e Basal ganglia m fineadjustm nts to com x se nce of m ake e ple que s usclem m nts by inhibiting ove e theflow of activation fromthethalam to thecorte us x C x orte In HD theability of basal ganglia to inhibit thalam is im us paire d. In PD, thebasal ganglia OVER inhibit thethalam us. Basal Ganglia Thalam us 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 104 C re llum e be Thece be re llumis involve in thecoordination of m m nt. d ove e pare re otor x) com s what you thought you we going to do (according to m corte with what is actually happe ning down in thelim (according to proprioce bs ptive fe dback), and e cts ove e re m corre them m nt if the is a proble . sponsiblefor m le otor arning, such as riding a bicycle . also partly re re , ntire ral Unlikethece brum which works e ly on a contralate basis, the ce be re llumworks ipsilate rally. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 105 S m of voluntary m m nt um ary ove e Voluntary action is planne in frontal corte d x Pe rform anceof voluntary action is controlle by the d inte raction of m ultiplesyste s m Actions m becarrie out unde control of pe ptual ay d r rce fe dback, or without fe dback e e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 106 Mode of m le ls otor arning rnste abstract m plans, syne s in otor rgie Be chm m ory S idt-Motor sche a the call m GMP and re sche as nbaum store posture d s Rose rthie ural tworks Be r ne ne 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 107 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Conception of central executive control of movement: higher cortical centers hold representation of movement and send commands to muscles. Nikolai Bernstein: too simple 1. Neuromuscular system has enormous "degrees of freedom" 2. Limb segments are linked and have complex physical properties, generating complex physical forces which must be controlled 3. People can perform the same task with many different combinations of joint positions and muscle contractions Example: write name with pen on paper: arm rigid, finger & hand movement; write name on blackboard: hand rigid, accomplished with upper arm and shoulder movements. Signature is scaled, but form is essentially the same 4. Brain controls action by planning in a very abstract way 5. Perception and action are continually interacting: fundamental skills like postural control, walking, reaching, have a strong cognitive, problem-solving component -- automatized 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 108 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Bernstein 1. Humans do not control elementary degrees of freedom, but use synergies (patterns of usage that are functionally advantageous). To produce reliable movement, control the synergies, not individual muscles; 2. Individuals first learning a skill will restrict the degrees of freedom that they use Simplifies the dynamics Reduces the size of the "search space" Infants learning to reach, accomplish movement with shoulder muscles; elbows and hands are locked Infants learning to walk, stiffen the knee joint Adults learning to ski typically stiffen legs 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 109 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Schmidt (1975...2003) Motor schema theory Motor skills are represented by two structures stored in memory 1. Generalized motor program (GMP) supports a class of movements by storing invariant features, such as order by which parts of movement unfold and relative timing and relative force (overarm throwing schema) 2. Recall schema: responsible for adjusting the parameters needed to scale the GMP's output to the specific environmental demands and conditions Each practice attempt (at throwing overarm) produces information that is abstracted and used to update the accuracy and reliability of the schema. Motor schema comes to represent the relationship between parameters of GMP and the outcome; rule that expresses the relationship among variables. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 110 Rose nbaume al (2001) m l of Planning & Motor Le t ode arning arning occurs be causethefinal postureof a Motor le succe ssful m m nt is store in m m ove e d e ory. n t ars e Whe thetarge again appe in thesam location the postureis re ve and be e theplan that is program e trie d com s md and e cute xe d. trie d s duce ount of There val of store posture re s theam com putation ne ssary for fast, accurateaction. ce nce otor arning occurs through theaccum ulation of He , m le plans. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 111 Planning A Grasp Four ste in planning a grasping action. ps 1. Re se pre ntations of grasping hand posture arere ve fromm m (top s trie d e ory pane l). 2. Thehand postureproviding theclose st fit to thetarge is se cte (se t le d cond pane l). 3. Re se pre ntations of arme nsions are xte re ve fromm m (third pane trie d e ory l). 4. Thearme nsion providing thebe fit xte st with thegrasp postureand its location is se cte (bottompane le d l). 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 112 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Be r e al (Psych Re w 2005) rthie t vie Le arning to re ach I n thefirst m onths of life 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 113 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Le arning to re ach Infants first ableto re & grasp at four m ach onths. But be the can re fore y ach Will grasp obje place in hand cts d Will fixateon obje within re cts aching distance The is de on whe r armm m nts arerandomor dire d toward re re bate the ove e cte achableobje cts Re aching e e s as two-arm d, but com nts pre nt be be m rge e pone se fore havior Be re fore aching, infants put hands ne in m ar, outh (e n in ute ve ro) Two obse rvations sugge e coordination of thre se st arly e nsory-m syste s: vision, m otor m outhing, re aching Drop of swe t wate in m e r outh incre s hand m m nts to m ase ove e outh Pre ntation of visually inte sting obje incre s m se re ct ase outh m m nts ove e Afte re onse obje brought to m r ach t, cts outh for e xploration 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 114 Le arning to re : Be r e al (Psych Re w 2005) ach rthie t vie C haracte d infant progre in re rize ss aching base on e nsivevide studie d xte o s S ulate theinitial stage of infants le im d s arning to re with a le ach arning com putational m l and aske thre que ode d e stions: 1. C thecom an putational m l produceoutput that is re ode asonably sim to e ilar arly infant m m nt? ove e 2. Is thecom putational m l powe e ode rful nough to le to re ad aching m m nts that ove e aresucce ssful and re m infant re se ble aching? 3. How doe them l pe s ode rformin m re ore alistic situations in which re s could ache start and finish ove widere r gions? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 115 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Le arning to re ach How to m odulatespontane be ous havior into goal-dire d be cte havior Task is individual: babie havediffe nt spontane m m nt style s re ous ove e s Fast m uscular pum ping m m nts ove e S fle low xing m m nts ove e Le what com arn bination works, how to adjust m variable (dire otor s ction, spe d, force and e ) re e be mm r Early re aching is indire and je with m s, and m "m m nt units" or groups of "spe dct rky, isse any ove e e up, slow-down" bum (adults e cutea typical re with only oneor two m m nt units) ps xe ach ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 116 Le arning to re : Be r e al (2005) ach rthie t Four-m onth old infant, le arning to re ach. I nfra-re m rs place on shoulde d arke d r, e lbow, and hand. Motions analyze d fromm ultiplere aching atte pts. m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 117 Le arning to re : Be r e al (2005) ach rthie t ......a com plicate m m d athe atical sim ulation of m ultipletrial le arning.... How well did it work? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 118 Le arning to re : Be r e al (2005) ach rthie t Hand speed profiles and planar fits to hand positions during an actual infant reaching movement (Top) and simulated reaching movement (bottom). 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 119 Le arning to re : Be r e al (2005) ach rthie t Them l (and pre ably theinfant) builds and use se ral ode sum s ve re se pre ntations. 1. What is e cte to happe as thearm xpe d n /infant e cute m xe s otor actions 2. What to do in diffe nt state (com re s binations of obje positions ct and hand/armstarting positions, inte e rm diatepositions, ne ar final positions) 3. How closediffe nt state arein "action and valuespace re s " (C sian spaceand psychological spacearenot thesam ) arte e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 120 Apraxia sults whe a pe no longe has acce to n rson r ss Apraxia re pre ntations ne ssary to guideaction ce theposturere se rce ation ne ssary to se ct thecorre ce le ct thepe ptual inform posturere se pre ntations 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 121 Pe ptual-Motor S Le rce kill arning kill arning Motor S Le rce kill arning Pe ptual-Motor S Le 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 122 Teaching Postal Workers to Type (Baddeley & Longman, 1978) rs re English postal worke we taught to typeso that the could usene m sorting e y w ail quipm nt e re dule Four diffe nt training sche s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 123 Le arning for four training sche s (hours x day) dule Learning Function 100 Keystrokes Per Minute 80 60 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 1x1 1x2 2x1 2x2 Days The 80 KPM criterion was reached fastest with massed practice when measured in DAYS of training. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 124 C haracte ristics of Le arning Function arning function is a log function. Thele prove e at be m nt ginning. Most im ve re ally ptote The is . re Howe r, the is not re an asym always im prove e with practice m nt . rval ginning of training to Thestudy inte fromthebe crite is shorte for m d than for distribute rion r asse d practice . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 125 Le arning Asym ptotefor Four Training S dule che s Learning Asymptote 100 Keystrokes Per Minute 80 60 40 20 0 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 1x1 1x2 2x1 2x2 Hours Fewer HOURS of Practice were required to reach criterion with distributed practice. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 126 PracticeTim e e nt ach rion Thetotal tim spe practicing to re crite is longe for m d than for distribute practice r asse d . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 127 Re ntion Function te Mean Correct Keystrokes/Min 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Retention Interval (Months) 1 hr/once 1 hr/twice 2hr/once 2hr/twice Performance deteriorates most rapidly from massed practice. 128 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition C haracte ristics of Re ntion Function te rm te ars Long-te re ntion appe to bea function of num r of days of practicerathe than num r of be r be hours of practice o d arning produce be r re ntion than s tte te S distribute le m d le asse arning rhaps forge tting doe not occur for routine s Pe activitie s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 129 Autonom vs. Autom ous atic r d e ory An action unde thecontrol of a plan store in m m is autonomous. I t doe not re s quirecom putation so othe r (m ntal) actions re e quiring com putation m becarrie on at ay d thesam tim . e e ssing, e ating, spe aking, writing Dre ous d rce An autonom action that is initiate by a pe ptual input, e hitting, is calle automatic. .g., d Hitting and catching al lie ous atic Norm activity re s on both autonom and autom actions. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 130 Flow of Information in Cognitive Processing S nsory input flows fromre ptors to m e ce idbrain, thalam us and am ygdala Fromthalam to corte us x Fromthalam to parie corte and prim se us tal x ary nsory corte x...to association corte x...two pathways.... ntral stre to temporal cortex for recognition am ve am dorsal stre to parietal cortex for localization Fromam ygdala to corte m x, idbrain, hypothalam if input is e otionally salie us m nt C ortical proce ssingto decideif and how to respond..... 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 131 Voluntary Movements Require Perception of target Awareness of location of movable body part Ability to aim movement of body part Ability to detect errors and re-adjust, (use feedback) Ability to use feedback to control movement of body part 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 132 How m m m nt syste s doe thebrain any ove e m s have ? 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Oneinte grate syste d m Two discre syste s te m Thre inte e racting syste s m Four re lative inde nde syste s ly pe nt m I don't know 40 133 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Conception of central executive control of movement: higher cortical centers hold representation of movement and send commands to muscles. Nikolai Bernstein: too simple 1. Neuromuscular system has enormous "degrees of freedom" 2. Limb segments are linked and have complex physical properties, generating complex physical forces which must be controlled 3. People can perform the same task with many different combinations of joint positions and muscle contractions Example: write name with pen on paper: arm rigid, finger & hand movement; write name on blackboard: hand rigid, accomplished with upper arm and shoulder movements. Signature is scaled, but form is essentially the same 4. Brain controls action by planning in a very abstract way 5. Perception and action are continually interacting: fundamental skills like postural control, walking, reaching, have a strong cognitive, problem-solving component -- automatized 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 134 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Bernstein 1. Humans do not control elementary degrees of freedom, but use synergies (patterns of usage that are functionally advantageous). To produce reliable movement, control the synergies, not individual muscles; 2. Individuals first learning a skill will restrict the degrees of freedom that they use Simplifies the dynamics Reduces the size of the "search space" Infants learning to reach, accomplish movement with shoulder muscles; elbows and hands are locked Infants learning to walk, stiffen the knee joint Adults learning to ski typically stiffen legs 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 135 Motor Le arning and Me ory m Schmidt (1975...2003) Motor schema theory Motor skills are represented by two structures stored in memory 1. Generalized motor program (GMP) supports a class of movements by storing invariant features, such as order by which parts of movement unfold and relative timing and relative force (overarm throwing schema) 2. Recall schema: responsible for adjusting the parameters needed to scale the GMP's output to the specific environmental demands and conditions Each practice attempt (at throwing overarm) produces information that is abstracted and used to update the accuracy and reliability of the schema. Motor schema comes to represent the relationship between parameters of GMP and the outcome; rule that expresses the relationship among variables. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 136 Rose nbaume al (2001) m l of Planning & Motor Le t ode arning arning occurs be causethefinal postureof a Motor le succe ssful m m nt is store in m m ove e d e ory. n t ars e Whe thetarge again appe in thesam location the postureis re ve and be e theplan that is program e trie d com s md and e cute xe d. trie d s duce ount of There val of store posture re s theam com putation ne ssary for fast, accurateaction. ce nce otor arning occurs through theaccum ulation of He , m le plans. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 137 Autonom vs. Autom ous atic r d e ory An action unde thecontrol of a plan store in m m is autonomous. I t doe not re s quirecom putation so othe r (m ntal) actions re e quiring com putation m becarrie on at ay d thesam tim . e e ssing, e ating, spe aking, writing Dre ous d rce An autonom action that is initiate by a pe ptual input, e hitting, is calle automatic. .g., d Hitting and catching al lie ous atic Norm activity re s on both autonom and autom actions. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 138 VISION Light & Dark, Color & Shape, Movement, Location, Eye movements Sensory Registration Feature analysis Shape Construction Perception and Action Disorders of Visual Perception and Memory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 139 How doe your brain cre a pictureof theworld s ate be your e s? fore ye I nte raction be e se twe n nsation and m m and e ory e ctation xpe Bottomup....base on visual inform d ation Top down....base on past e rie d xpe nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 140 How doe your brain cre a pictureof theworld s ate be your e s? fore ye Visual proce ssing be at there gins tina. Photore ptors contain pigm nts which changeche ically whe the ce e m n photore ptors arestim ce ulate by photons. d The se se nsory ce arerods & cone synapsewith bipolar ce synapsewith ganglion ce (am lls s; lls, lls acrinece lls and horizontal ce providecom lls plicate circuitry) d one nsitivephoto-re ptors arem de in thefove and in thefove - typically ce ost nse a, a C s, color-se conne to singlebipolar ce which conne to a singleganglion ce There ptivefie of ct ll, cts ll. ce lds ganglion ce se lls rving thefove areve tiny. a ry ate s a, be ce ce ld" At gre r distance fromthefove thenum r of photore ptors in the"re ptivefie of a ganglion ce grows. ll ate a; nsitivity is highe in pe r riphe vision ral Acuity is gre st at thefove se tinal ganglion ce se m proje lls nd ajor ctions to LGN of thalam collate to pulvinar us, rals Axons of re nucle of thalam and to thesupe colliculus in m us us, rior id-brain. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 141 What is a receptive field? Thereceptive field of a ne uron in thevisual syste is m that part of there tina, that whe stim n ulate with d characte ristic visual inform ation, cause a changein activity s in thene uron. Neurons have "response characteristics" The average level of activity (firing) of the neuron when it is not receiving input The type of input that causes activity level to change + or - 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 142 Are there receptive fields in other sensory systems? Ye For e ple there ptivefie of a ne s. xam , ce ld uron in thesom atose nsory corte is that part of thebody that x se se nds nsory inform ation to that ne uron, causing activity (firing) to incre or de ase ase cre . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 143 On / Off and Off / On ce in there lls tina, LGN, and prim visual corte havediffe nt re ary x re sponse characte ristics. Light Photoreceptors On/off cells increase activity when the central area of receptive field is stimulated; decrease activity when surround is illuminated. Center Off/on cells increase activity when surround is illuminated; decrease activity when center is illuminated. Surround 05/13/09 On-center I ntroduction to C ognition Off-center 144 Receptive fields of cells in retina, LGN and visual cortex Cells are characterized based on how they respond to stimulation within the receptive field of the cell. An On / off cell is more active when the central area of its receptive field is stimulated, less active when surround is stimulated. On/ off ganglion cell in retina or LGN Re ptivefie is an are ce ld a of re tina, with m any photore ptors, ce C cte to m ce onne d ore ntral ce lls. 05/13/09 Light on in center Light off in ce r nte Light on in surround Light off in surround I ntroduction to C ognition 145 C oding of light and dark inform ation in there tina Each ganglion ce re ive input fromphotore ptors just onein fove m in ll ce s ce a, ore pe riphe ry Re ptivefie of m ganglion ce consist of two conce ce lds ost lls ntric circle s C lls aree d whe light falls on oneare and areinhibite whe light falls on the e xcite n a, d n othe r This oppone proce e nt ss xcitation / inhibition, e nhance ne s rvous syste 's ability to m de ct contrasts. te 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 146 C oding of color inform ation in there tina C vision occurs as re of diffe ntial re olor sult re sponsepatte of cone to rns s light of diffe nt fre ncy re que Most color-se nsitiveganglion ce haveopposing ce r-surround lls nte organizations for pairs of prim colors ary 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 147 C oding of color inform ation in there tina Color vision occurs as result of differential response patterns of cones to light of different frequency Three types of cones 419 495 531 559 nm Relative absorbance Different types of cones have different peak sensitivities . Blue cone Red Cone Rod Green cone More red and green than blue cones. 05/13/09 400 450 500 550 600 Wavelength (nm) I ntroduction to C ognition 148 S m um ary: I nform ation about light and dark, color Photore ptors in there contain photo-pigm nts, which changewhe struck by ce tina e n photons of diffe nt wave ngths. re le Each ganglion ce in there re ive input fromphotore ptors just onein fove ll tina ce s ce a, m in pe ore riphe ry C vision occurs as re of diffe ntial re olor sult re sponsepatte of cone to light of rns s diffe nt fre ncy re que Re ptivefie of m ganglion ce consist of two conce ce lds ost lls ntric circle s e xcite n a, d n C lls aree d whe light falls on oneare and areinhibite whe light falls on theothe r. om tinal ganglion ce areorganize in an oppone proce syste for color lls d nt ss m S ere coding; ne urons re spond to pairs of colors. nt ss xcitation / inhibition, e nhance ability to de ct s te This oppone proce e contrasts. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 149 Whe doe inform re s ation go fromthere tina? What happe ne ns xt? tinal ganglion ce se m proje lls nd ajor ctions to LGN of Axons of re thalam collate to pulvinar nucle of thalam and to the us, rals us us, supe colliculus in them rior id-brain. The thre pathways re ct thre visual syste s: se e fle e m 1.formpe ption/re rce cognition, de clarativepathway 2.localization for control of m m nt, ove e 3.control of e m m nts ye ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 150 cortex Frontal Frontal eye fields basal ganglia Parietal Occipital thalamus LGN Pl S C mid-brain Eye, retina, eye muscles Schematic of simplified visual pathways: retinal ganglion cells project to the thalamus and mid-brain. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 151 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 152 Eye movements are important to seeing Only central vision is acute Eyes move rapidly to areas of high contrast Temporal integration of multiple fixations creates an orderly visual world Threshold for detection is increased during a saccade (sc-kd') or blink, but the localization system still processes information I ntroduction to C ognition 153 05/13/09 How are eye movements controlled? Control of eye movements Cortical control: Top-down viewer's expectations and intentions: frontal eye fields and posterior parietal cortex cooperate Sub-cortical control: Bottom-up changes in visual field: superior colliculus responds to motion, basal ganglia gate input Length of fixation depends on complexity of information at fixation point: number of angles, changes in contrast, number of color changes. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 154 Eye movements in reading why is it important? Re ading is pe rhaps them im ost portant skill that pe acquirefor which wewe ople re not biologically program e m d. Expe ctation and inte influe e m m nts e ctation and inte in vie nt nce ye ove e xpe nt wing sce s aredifficult to infe Expe ne r. ctation and inte in re nt ading for m aning are e re lative e to infe ly asy r. Fixateon be ginnings of words, phrase s; le ngth of fixations, occurre of re nce tro-grade(backward) saccade de nds on s pe difficulty of m rial. ate Eyem m nts aredrive by le ove e n xical acce so word fre ncy, pre ss, que dictability of te syntactic com xity will all affe e m m nts. xt, ple ct ye ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 155 Dam to thefrontal e fie would disrupt age ye lds 11% 63% 3% 5% 18% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (305.11C1) form perception and object recognition voluntary control of eye movements integration of color and form information perceptual binding of visual information I don't know 0 I ntroduction to C ognition 156 05/13/09 Blind sight, cortical blindne ss I n ne urologically norm individuals al ntify location of light flashe thehavenot s May beableto ide "se n"...S nski and Hanse (1978) e kave n I n brain-dam d patie age nts ach ly cts y May beableto re accurate for obje that the cannot re cognize s age Eye not dam d cting e m m nt and re ye ove e aching areintact Pathways dire onne d ctions within the"de clarative C ctions to V1 disrupte or conne pathway" aredisrupte d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 157 Visual fie lds Right visual fie ld proje to le cts ft te poral re and m tina right nasal re tina. Axons of ganglion ce fromnasal lls re tinas cross at the optic chiasm . Each visual fie has ld its prim ary re se pre ntation on the oppositesideof the brain. Optic nerve Optic chiasm Optic tract Lateral geniculate nucleus Cortical blindness Optic radiation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Primary visual cortex 158 What do I re ne d to know about the ally e LGN? d rs, tinotopic I t is organize in laye with re organization e ce lds C lls in theLGN havere ptivefie re rs ce re s ation Diffe nt laye re ivediffe nt type of inform re rs nd ation to diffe nt type re s Diffe nt laye se inform of ce in "m lls odule in thevisual corte s" x 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 159 Line Retina Lateral geniculate nucleus Re ptivefie ove ce lds rlap to cre orie ate ntation se nsitiveline e , and , dge anglede ctors. te 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Primary Visual Cortex (V1) 160 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the thalamus Six (+) layers of cells, 2 of Magnocellular, 4 parvocellular, koniocellular layers in between. Receive retinal input from M, P, and K cells Magnocellular: contrast information, fast Parvocellular: color information, fine detail, slow Koniocellular: unclear function, color, may integrate somatosensory information Ipsilateral eye sends information to layers 2,3,5 Contralateral eye sends information to layers 1,4,6 I ntroduction to C ognition 161 05/13/09 Sub-cortical structures preserve topographic features of the visual field Projections of the retina to the superior colliculus in the tectum or midbrain preserve the topography of the retina Projections of the retina to the pulvinar and LGN preserve the topography of the retina 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 162 Re ptivefie grow in size ce lds At e ste in thevisual proce ach p ssing pathway, there ptivefie of ce lds ce in the"highe le ls" of visual proce lls r ve ssing grow in are and in a thecom xity and spe ple cificity of thestim ulation to which the y show a re sponse Re ptivefie in theinfe m ce lds ro-te poral corte can beas largeas the x e ntireright or le visual fie ft ld. Re cognition, ide ntification and fine -graine classification arere d sponse s of ce in theinfe m lls ro-te poral corte x 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 163 Receptive fields in V1 do not respond to simple spots of light and color Retinal ganglion cells encode information about relative amounts of light on center / surround regions of receptive fields, and in and near fovea, the wavelength (color) of that light Striate cortex performs additional processing on information, transmits to visual association cortex (Hubel & Weisel) Orientation: most neurons in V1 sensitive to orientation Simple cells: orientation sensitive with receptive fields organized in opponent fashion (not circular) Complex cells: orientation sensitive, no inhibitory surround, responds when line moves within field Hyper-complex cells: orientation sensitive , but with an inhibitory region at the end, detectors of ends of lines of particular orientations 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 164 Primary visual cortex responds to complex characteristics of visual input S patial fre ncy: que late work de onstrate that V1 ne r m d urons re sponde be to sinewavegratings of particular d st fre ncy and orie que ntation. Me asure in te s of cycle pe de eof visual angle(be d rm s r gre causere tinal im sizede nds on age pe sizeof obje AND distance ct ) Them im ost portant inform ation in im s is in low spatial fre ncie give broad outline age que s, s s S all obje de within largeobje sharp e s on largeobje arere se d by m cts, tail cts, dge cts pre nte highe fre ncie r que s. Low High 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 165 Why havene circuits that analyzesine ural wavegratings? Low frequency information Is there an object in the visual field? High frequency information What or who is the object? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 166 Q: I was lousy at trig...how can I havene urons that analyzesinewavegratings? A: Thecapacity de lops with m ve aturation and e rie during infancy and childhood. xpe nce Contrast sensitivity function (C F) se S nsitivity to sinusoidal bar gratings of wide varie spatial ly d fre ncy. que Adult contrast se nsitivity is gre st to ate inte e rm diatespatial fre ncie que s. Thehighe spatial fre ncy can be st que re solve only at ve high contrast and d ry corre sponds to acuity le l ve I nfant vision im prove in contrast s se nsitivity dueto change in thee , the s ye re tina, and e rie -base xpe nce d de lopm nt of thevisual corte ve e x 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 167 Te xture V1 Ne urons re spond to com binations of spatial fre ncy and que orie ntation Von de He e al (1992) ne r ydt t urons discove d in m y V1. re onke ~ 4m illion te xturese nsitive(pe riodic-patte rn-orie ntation se nsitive ce se thece ) lls rve ntral 4 of vision in m y V1 onke Function to pe ivesurface rce s Most surface in naturehaverough re ating te s pe xture(bark, le s, fur) ave 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 168 Re tinal Disparity e ntial to de pe ption for ne sse pth rce ar obje cts Most ne urons in striatecorte arebinocular x Many, particularly thosethat re iveinform ce ation fromthe m agnoce llular syste (of LGN) contributeto pe ption of de m rce pth. C lls re e spond m whe e e se s stim in slightly diffe nt ost n ach ye e ulus re location. (re tinal disparity) Wearealso se nsitiveto "vergence"...se nsory fe dback frome e ye m s uscle 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 169 C olor I n striatecorte inform x, ation fromcolor se nsitiveganglion ce is lls transm d through parvoce itte llular and konioce llular laye of rs LGN to spe ce calle cial lls d cytochrom oxidase(C blobs e O) Parvoce llular syste transm inform m its ation fromre and gre n cone d e s Konioce llular syste transm inform m its ation frombluecone s Magnoce llular syste transm light and dark, spatial fre ncy m its que inform ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 170 Archite ctureof striatecorte x 1 Konioce llular input to blobs 2 and 3 4A 4B 4C 4C S triatecorte consists of ~ 2,500 x m odule s Each .5 * .7 m , and contains ~ m 150,000 ne urons Each m oduleanalyze fe s ature of s visual stim in sm part of visual uli all fie Re ptivefie ove ld. ce lds rlap. Ne urons in blobs arese nsitiveto color and low spatial fre ncy que Magnoce llular input 5 and 6 Parvoce llular input C olum organization within m nar odule orie s, ntation se nsitivity constant within a colum n. I ntroduction to C ognition 171 05/13/09 Summary Retinal ganglion cells and cells of the LGN encode the simplest features of visual stimuli in their receptive fields light and dark and color. The primary visual cortex, also known as striate cortex, or V1, encodes color, spatial frequency, movement, orientation, texture, and retinal disparity The primary visual cortex preserves the topographic features of the visual field. V1 contains a distorted map of the visual field. Remember: The somatosensory cortex and motor cortex represent body parts based on sensitivity and fine motor control, rather than on body part size. Similarly, the visual cortex "over-represents" the area of central vision, or foveal vision, because that is where vision is most acute. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 172 Vision....continue d Light & Dark, Color & Shape, Movement, Location, Eye movements Sensory Registration Feature analysis Shape Construction & Object Recognition Perception and Action Disorders of Visual Perception and Memory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 173 How do we turn features into objects? Bottom-up processes driven by sensory input Top down processes guided by expectations, context, intentions 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 174 Visual Re cognition S urface aregroupe into obje s d cts Obje re se ct pre ntations arem out of ge e parts ade om tric Obje re se ct pre ntations arecom d to store re se pare d pre ntations Re tition of nove (ne obje le to cre pe l w) cts ads ation of re se pre ntations that can beactivate by future d pre ntation....le se ading to a re cognition re sponse 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 175 S s of Re tage cognition Proce ss om tage C parison S om rns e ory. C pareinput with patte in m m sponseS tage Re atch in m m and activateassociate patte to e ory d rns Find a m cre a re se ate pre ntation of theworld (pe ption/consciousne rce ss). e ction & I nte gration S tage S le gratethere se pre ntation into an obje ct/sce ne I nte re se pre ntation to dire action. ct 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 176 How areshape constructe s d? pth xturepatte com d, according to principle of rns bine s De and te organization (Ge stalt) ontinuity C im S ilarity losure C rn ld d paratere se pre ntation Pop-out: a patte in a visual fie is assigne a se fromthere of thefie st ld am : rn d r e C ouflage a patte is containe in anothe and not se n as a se paratepart 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 177 How areshape constructe s d? rn ld d paratere se pre ntation Pop-out: a patte in a visual fie is assigne a se fromthere of thefie st ld am : rn d r e C ouflage a patte is containe in anothe and not se n as a se paratepart 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 178 Me ory and visual pe ption m rce n cts ne biguous, were on ly Whe obje and sce s aream m m to de rm what is m like e ory te ine ost ly Schemas, structural descriptions fficie visual pe ptual syste re ve nt, rce m trie s To bee rathe than constructs m obje r ost cts 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 179 How do we recognize objects? iliar ct e m nt ple A fam obje can bese n as an arrange e of sim parts. Marr: most biological forms are arrangements of pipe-like parts or components 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 180 Biederman, Geons & Recognition by Components 1. Obje is se e d into basic subobje ct gm nte cts 2. Obje is e ct ncode as conne d subobje d cte cts ons om tric (36 ge or ge e ions) 3. Obje is re ct cognize as thepatte m of d rn ade thecom nts (as a word is re pone cognize as a d patte of le rs) rn tte 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 181 What evidence is there for the geon theory? che atic cts cognize as d S m drawings of obje arere accurate & rapidly as de d color ly taile photographs 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 182 What evidence is there for the geon theory? de an oope ing xpe e Bie rm & C r (1991) prim e rim nt What is priming? One stimulus (prime) is presented Later, a related target is presented.... Speed & accuracy of recognition of target may be affected if prime influences processing of target 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 183 Biederman, Geons & Recognition by Components de an oope Bie rm & C r (1991) om d e C pare thespe d and accuracy with which participants could nam a brie pre nte im e fly se d age unde four conditions r ing e ask ach xpose for 500 d Prim block: fixation, prim , m e e m c: TAS nam thepicture se K: e t se t se Targe block: fixation (500m c), targe (200 m c), fixation(500 m c). TAS nam thepicture se K: e s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 184 Ge Bie rm & C r (1991) FOUR CONDITIONS ons de an oope 1. 2. 3. 4. Ge prim and ge targe (com m ntary im s, pre rving e ry othe e & on e on t ple e age se ve r dge angle so ge sugge d) , ons ste Non-ge prim and non-ge targe (com m ntary im s, pre rving e ry on e on t ple e age se ve othe shape so e r , ntirege de te ons le d) Sm e antic prim /targe (upright piano / baby grand) e t Re tition of prim pe e Block of trials with m ultipleim s, age Non degraded 05/13/09 Geons degraded I ntroduction to C ognition Geons deleted non-geon 185 Ge Bie rm & C r (1991) ons de an oope 1. Geon prime and geon target (complementary images, pre rving e ry othe e & angle so ge aresugge d) se ve r dge , ons ste Prime Target 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 186 Ge Bie rm & C r (1991) ons de an oope 1. Non-ge prim and non-ge targe (complementary images, on e on t pre rving e ry othe shape so e se ve r , ntirege de te ons le d) Non degraded Prime Target 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 187 Ge Bie rm & C r (1991) ons de an oope 1. Semantic target (upright piano / baby grand) 2. Repetition of prime Block of trials with multiple images, Semantic (actually, 50% of images) Prime Target Repetition 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 188 Ge Bie rm & C r (1991) Results ons de an oope rrors for ge on-prim , ge e on-targe we e t re quivale to nt Accuracy and e re tition prim s pe e on m ts re e ore ss Non-ge and se antic targe we nam d m slowly and le accurate ly ugge on e on t e S sts that ge prim and ge targe activatethesam re se pre ntation, so ge prim is e on ing quivale to re tition prim nt pe ing Reaction Time 850ms Errors 05/13/09 Pr im Re e pe tit G ion e No on nG eo n Se m an tic I ntroduction to C ognition Pr im Re e pe tit G ion e No on nG eo n Se m an tic 700ms 189 Re cognition of unfam obje Bie rm & Barr (1999) iliar cts: de an tudie of accuracy and spe d to m sam /diffe nt judgm nts of s e ake e re e S obje se n and the se n in rotation cts e n e cts re ntical in two pre ntations OR se Obje we ide e ct re e rtie S cond obje diffe d in m tric prope s OR e ct re ntal rtie re ons) S cond obje diffe d in "non-accide prope s" (diffe nt ge 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 190 Re cognition of unfam obje iliar cts sults: e rrors and re action tim we m gre r for e re uch ate Re se cond stim that diffe d by m tric prope s (had the uli re e rtie sam ge e ons) Original Metric properties different Geons different 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 191 What do the e rim nts m an? se xpe e e re asonablee ncesupporting Bie rm vide de an's The is re the ory s ncode as patte of basic com nts d rns pone Form aree s cognize as patte of basic d rns Form arere com nts pone de an se pone ons Bie rm calls the com nts ge 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 192 Words and Face s riority e ct: visually de ffe grade le rs are d tte Word supe m m accurate re uch ore ly cognize as parts of words d than as parts of le r strings tte 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 193 Word Superiority EYE What are le rs? tte the C xt m s re onte ake cognition e r asie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 194 Words and Face s riority e ct: visually de ffe grade le rs arem m d tte uch ore Word supe accurate re ly cognize as parts of words than as parts of le r strings d tte rte s e rtie I nve d face losethem tric prope s that allow us to proce and ide ss ntify theim age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 195 What can go wrong with re cognition? age re Dam to diffe nt parts of thevisual pathway produce diffe nt type of de s re s ficits ortical blindne ss C rce Appe ptiveagnosia Associativeagnosia 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 196 Type of Visual s Agnosia Recognition Top Down Perceptual Processing Bottom up Perceptual Processing Mesial Temporal Subcortex Surrounding Visual Cortex Occipital Cortex I nability to acce ss mm e ory associative Agnosia: prosopagnosia is spe to face cific s LGN of Thalamus I ntroduction to CRetina ognition Inability to inte grate Fe ature s appe ptive rce Agnosia or sim ultagnosia 05/13/09 197 What are the central questions in visual recognition? How do we achieve both selectivity and constancy (or "robust invariance")? Selectivity: that is not just "an older woman" that is my Grandma, not just two black dogs, but Violet & Blue Constancy: we can identify an object or a person in many different presentations Cows from far away, cows from above, cows from the side, cows in the rain, cows at dawn, cows in a field, cows in a truck......and seldom mistake a cow for a horse or a dog 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 198 What are the central questions in visual recognition? How much of our success in object and person recognition depends on hard-wired innate circuitry and how much depends on learned skills? Ventral stream of visual information ends in the inferotemporal cortex Single neurons in the infero-temporal cortex show selectivity for single objects with tolerance for variation in position, scale and some variation in orientation ....how do the neurons develop this combination of selectivity and tolerance? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 199 Do we learn representations through experience with "statistics" of visual world? Visual fe ature that co-vary ove short pe s r riods of tim are e MORE like to corre ly spond to diffe nt im s of thesam re age e obje than to diffe nt obje ct re cts Ove tim and m r e ultiplee xposure webuild an invariant s, re se pre ntation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 200 Do we learn representations through experience with "statistics" of visual world? associating patte of ne activity, produce by succe rns ural d ssive re tinal im s of obje age cts Re tinal position will bediscontinuous, be causeof sam pling be e saccade twe n s.... S onestrate for building position invariant re se O, gy pre ntations is association of ne activity patte across saccade ural rns s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 201 Do we learn representations through experience with "statistics" of visual world? I f thevisual syste builds position invariant m re se pre ntations through association of ne ural activity patte across saccade rns s...... Can you trick thevisual syste , by swapping obje m cts, during a saccade ? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 202 DiC & C NatureNe arlo ox, uroscie , 2005 nce ubje re e s" e S cts we shown "gre ble in oneof thre positions; naturally shifte gazetoward theobje d ct; during saccade obje we swappe s, cts re d-out for ne w obje cts .g., rky ars d ars e squat, pe e swappe out for thin, droopy e during saccade 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 203 DiC & C 2005 arlo ox Participants fixate on a d ce ntral point; an obje was ct pre nte 6 to thele or right se d ft of ce r; on som of thetrials, nte e as thesubje m d the gaze cts ove ir to fixateon theobje it was ct, re place with a sim but d ilar, diffe nt obje re ct. Afte "training" trials, subje r cts we te d with a re ste "sam /diffe nt" task e re C opyright NatureNe uroscie nce 2005 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 204 DiC & C 2005 Results arlo ox ubje re se d cts re S cts we pre nte with pairs of theobje in diffe nt positions on thescre n and aske whe r theobje we sam or diffe nt. e d the cts re e re cts e d appe d e Obje that had be n swappe and re are in thesam positions whe theswaps occurre we judge to bethesam . re d re d e rim nts d be sults we re Expe e 1 & 2 varie num r of training trials; re thesam e rim nt cts e tinal e xposuree rie but xpe nce Expe e 3: subje had thesam re without e m m nts (m ye ove e aintaine ce d ntral fixation) and did NOT confuseobje late in thesam / diffe nt task cts r e re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 205 Hung e al, S nce2005 t cie rim nts acaquem ys de onstratethat highly re onke m liable Expe e in m inform ation about obje ide ct ntity and cate gory is containe in the d activity of sm num rs of ne all be urons s cts acaque in various cate s: toys, s gorie 77 picture of obje shown to m food, hum face m an s, acaqueface hands, anim ve s s, als, hicle re s, re tinal locations, diffe nt size im s shown re d age Diffe nt instance diffe nt re during training trials -unit activity, and local fie pote ld ntial re corde d Multi-unit activity, single during training trials. w s uli cognition trials Ne picture of training stim shown in re m ode puting we ighte sum of ne activity ove short d s ural r Mathe atical m ls com inte rvals can accurate diffe ntiatecate ly re gory and ide ntity of stim in uli "re cognition trials" 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 206 Fig. 1. Accurate readout of object category and identity from IT population activity MUA: m ultipleunit activity S UA: singleunit activity LFP: local fie pote ld ntial C. P. Hung et al., Science 310, 863 -866 (2005) C onfusion m atrix Published by AAAS 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 207 Expe e in im e rim nts m diatere cognition Im e m diatere cognition: RS rapid se visual pre ntation, VP rial se 50/se cond s al? ople Doe it contain an anim Pe are~80%accurate(50% is chance but can't ide ) ntify theanim als ate d ssion of com x fe ple ature s C gorization base on posse s, aks/m ouths, nose /nostrils, e le wings, tails ars, gs, Body parts: Eye be urface fur, skin, scale fe rs s: s, athe S atureis e nough for cate gorization but not ide ntification Any onefe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 208 S m Obje Re um ary ct cognition I nte gration of variation in shapeacross m ultiplesaccade s (e m m nts) is a plausiblem chanismfor ye ove e e le arning/acquiring pe ptual constancy rce Prim visual syste s codeobje ide ate m ct ntity and cate in gory theinfe m ro-te poral corte x urons and sm groups of ne all urons show I ndividual ne both se ctivity to individual obje and tole le cts rancefor diffe nce in size location, and orie re s , ntation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 209 Atte ntion Ne basis of atte ural ntion De d fromthem syste rive otor m Bottle cks, filte & spotlights S le ne rs e ctiveatte ntion: location base obje base d, ct d Ce ntral atte ntion Ne ct syndrom gle e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 210 Atte ntion e ction of oneact ove anothe De r r ciding what to do S le ne xt ct, rson, sound, e nt, or ve Focusing on an obje pe location e e e S arching for som thing/som one ve Waiting/vigilancefor a particular e nt Brain atte ntion m chanism area m ge ral formof e s ore ne m action otor 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 211 What parts of the cortex are involved? Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Parietal cortex Ante cingulatecorte rior x 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 212 Subcortical areas involved in control of attention Basal Ganglia Thalamus Midbrain S.C. & I.C. Re ticular activating syste m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 213 GateMode of S le l e ction volve to control m m m nts d otor ove e Basal ganglia e cruite into theatte d ntion syste that controls m ntal m e Re actions such as which se nsory/pe ptual channe to "tunein rce ls to" 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 214 GateMode of S le l e ction orte ight C x signals basal ganglia "That's it" or "That m beit", thebasal ganglia shut gate in thethalam and a narrow s us band of pe ptual input is se cte for furthe proce rce le d r ssing. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 215 Fromparalle to se proce l rial ssing e rce m ss assive S nsory & pe ptual syste s proce m am ounts of inform ation in paralle l im ously analyzing m fe any ature s S ultane m ore ite Action syste s arem lim d What arethecharacte ristics of thelim itations? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 216 Early S le e ction aturede d at fe fine atureanalysis I f input has a uniquefe stageof pe ptual syste , the EARLY S rce m n ELEC ON or TI PERC EPTUAL S ELEC ON occurs TI f arch is sufficie to find targe whe e se ction nt t n arly le Brie se of a pe ptual fe rce atureis possible . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 217 Classic Experiments Early Selection C rry (1953) dichotic liste he ning and shadowing task. Task: to re at input ("shadowing") to right e pe ar uch nde l ft ar) m m re How m of unatte d channe (le e is re e be d? d? , ale What was notice switch to tone switch fromm to fe ale m Location was e ctiveas thebasis of se ction, onee rathe ffe le ar r than theothe r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 218 Filtered out or attenuated? Broadbe propose a filte the to account for e se ction. nt d r ory arly le ople le e ss d Pe se ct a m ssageto proce base on physical characte ristics dde sm Gray & We rburn (1960) and Trie an (1960) de onstrate se ction base on se antic conte m d le d m nt Trie an propose theatte sm d nuation the ory ssage we ne not filte d out, base on physical s ake d, re d Me prope s rtie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 219 I nput or output lim itations? S le e ction of re sponse S le e ction of re sponse Analysis of conte nt Analysis of conte nt Tre an ism 05/13/09 ve rsus De utsch & De utsch I ntroduction to C ognition 220 Visual atte ntion as a spotlight Thewide theare of atte r a ntion, the le inform ss ation can beproce d from sse any location 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 221 Ne e nce ural vide m nt nde Enhance e of theatte d signal nuation of thesignal fromtheatte d e nde ar Atte onsiste with BG/Thalam gating m l nt ic ode C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 222 C lassic Expe e Early S le rim nts e ction During e se ction, a targe is se cte be its fe arly le t le d fore ature areasse ble into its com te s m d ple re se pre ntation. Rapid se visual pre ntation (RS tasks rial se VP) Pre ntation rate =, gre r than 10 pe se se s ate r cond At this spe d, fe e ature of onestim m becom d with thoseof anothe stim s ulus ay bine r ulus: I llusory C onjunction What color was thecircle High pe ntageof re ? rce sponse will be"orange or "gre n". s " e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 223 C lassic Expe e Early S le rim nts e ction During e se ction, a targe is se cte be its fe arly le t le d fore ature areasse ble into its com tere se s m d ple pre ntation. Rapid se visual pre ntation (RS tasks rial se VP) Pre ntation rate gre r than 10 pe se se s ate r cond Fe ature of onestim com d with thoseof anothe stim s ulus bine r ulus: I llusory C onjunction How doe illusory conjunction occur? s The is not e re nough tim to suppre all othe input whe a targe fe e ss r n t atureis de cte (thalam te d. ic shift/filte r/gatetake 150 m Vision is prim s s) arily spatial. Te poral control of thalam gate is m ic s not finee nough whe pre ntations areve brie n se ry f. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 224 S le e ctiveatte ntion How doe this proce work? s ss Through a thre stageproce calle se ctive e ss d le atte ntion 1. Targe spe t cification 2. S arch e 3. Orie nting re sponse 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 225 S le e ctiveatte ntion An e ple m e a frie at theairport xam : e ting nd Targe spe t cification: you bring up (re ve a m ntal picture trie ) e (re se pre ntation) of your frie nd S arch: You look through thecrowd, partial m e atche s capture your atte ntion m e om ntarily, and you orie nt toward thesim face ilar s, hair, he ight, continuing these arch whe you se a m atch n e ism Orie nting re sponse A good m : atch! You ide ntify your frie and nd othe visual input is inhibite r d...m e om ntarily 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 226 LateS le e ction I f input doe NOT havea uniquefe s aturede d at fe fine atureanalysis stage of pe ptual syste , the LATE S rce m n ELEC ON occurs. TI All input re se pre ntations containing a targe fe t aturem becom d ust pare with thespe d targe re se cifie t pre ntation..... S thenum r of input re se o, be pre ntations that haveto bem atche to m m d e ory is a function of thenum r of fe be ature that haveto bem s atche d.... S se o, arch tim is e nde e xte d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 227 Orie nting Re sponseand Divide Atte d ntion Visual orie nting is a two stageproce ss 1. Proce ssing be at a ne location (the is visual input & fe gins w re ature Eye be to m to ne location s gin ove w Frontal corte and parie corte signal basal ganglia x tal x Basal ganglia signal pulvinar of thalam AND supe us rior colliculus AND inhibit thalam proce ic ssing of inputs fromold locations (take ~ 150 m s s) 2. Additional inform ation gaine by shift guide e fixation in thene location d s ye w m atch) At thefirst stage haveS , OME inform ation about shape C ple inform om te ation only afte e m m nt and fixation r ye ove e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 228 Orie nting Re sponseand Divide Atte d ntion Visual orie nting is a two stageproce ss 1. Proce ssing be at a ne location (the is visual input & fe gins w re ature 2. Additional inform ation gaine by shift guide e fixation in thene location d s ye w m atch) At thefirst stage haveS , OME inform ation about shape C ple inform om te ation only afte e m m nt and fixation r ye ove e How long doe this take About 300 m afte thestart of the s ? s r orie nting re sponse We lgartne & S rling (1987) ichse r pe C ontinuous rapid stre of le rs in onelocation, digits in anothe location am tte r Vigilancetask for le r "C", the re digits tte n port Probability of re porting a digit de nde on how long afte theCit was shown.....re pe d r ports start at -100, noneat 0 stim onse asynchrony, 100, pe at 300 400 m S ulus t ak s OA 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 229 Orie nting Re sponseand Divide Atte d ntion Expe e with singletarge and targe se or targe rim nts ts t ts, t se nce re que s quirediffe nt ope re rations Pick up your Clickers and look out for Red M&Ms Yellow M&Ms 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 230 Orie nting Re sponseand Divide Atte d ntion Expe e with singletarge and targe se or targe se nce re rim nts ts t ts, t que s quire diffe nt ope re rations Re M& Ms Is there one? d Early se ction le Ye llow M& Ms How many are there? Latese ction, m le ultiple locations re quireshifts of atte ntion Any task that re quire atte s ntion to m than onestim ore ulus, m than one ore location is a divide atte d ntion task Theprobability of re sponding to m ultipletarge is lowe than to a single ts r targe but not ze be t ro causeof thepe rsiste of se nce nsory inform ation. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 231 S m of S le um ary e ctiveAtte ntion An act of se ctiveatte le ntion has thre stage e s 1. Targe spe t cification 2. Targe se t arch 3. Orie ntation Whe a pote n ntial targe is pe ptually distinct, se t rce arch e e nds arly, on thebasis of a fe aturem atch Whe e se ction is not possible latese ction occurs: m than onepe ptual input n arly le , le ore rce has passe through a pe ptual gateor filte d rce r Thebasal ganglia close thalam gate s ic s/filte inhibiting furthe proce rs, r ssing of non-targe t se nsory channe whe a m ls n atch/pote ntial m atch is m ade 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 232 S le e ctiveatte ntion Re ading The Stroop Effect and response competition Re ading is a spe cialize visual scanning skill, that d de nds on theability to dire atte pe ct ntion. I t is highly practice and autom d atic 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 233 Name the color of the print RED BLUE GREEN BLUE BROWN No response competition line: reading YELLOW for the firstresponse. and color naming produce the same Response competition for the second line slows response. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 234 Ne ct gle e gle spond to se nsory inputs S nsory ne ct: failureto re froma location gle ake sponse with a part s Motor ne ct: failureto m re of thebody 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 235 Ne ct gle m re age ore ly gle Right he isphe dam is m like to causene ct than le he isphe dam (inte ft m re age gration of visuospatial re se pre ntations of right and le se ft nsory fie usually take lds s placein right parie and te poral lobe tal m s) rful rting stim icewate in contralate e ulus r ral ar A powe ale can ge theatte t ntion of thedam d he isphe , for a age m re while . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 236 Arousal Em otional arousal is a m prim ore itivesyste for dire m cting atte ntion to targe and re ts sponding to the than thecognitivesyste of m m m atching input re se pre ntations to store re se d pre ntations. Re ticular activating syste runs through brainste through m m m idbrain e rt; Ke ps individual awake& ale age ral gle Dam to onesideof RAScan producecontralate ne ct. age s a. Dam to both side can producecom Re ticular activating syste inhibits thebasal ganglia via thesubstantia nigra, which m pre nts/re s basal ganglia's inhibition of thethalam ve duce us. (RASdam re s inhibition of basal ganglia which I NC age duce REAS basal ganglia's inhibition of ES thethalam which re s se us duce nsory input to thecorte x) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 237 Arousal: Parkinson's Dise ase Gradual de struction of dopam producing ce in ine lls substantia nigra, that norm inhibit thebasal ally ganglia, re s its inhibition of thethalam duce us. Thalam "gate areshut by continuous inhibition from ic s" basal ganglia re sulting in de ase se cre d nsory input and voluntary m m nt ove e Ve strong stim physical or e otional, can ry ulus m producea re sponse 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 238 Ye s Dodson Law rke Ge ral form ne ulation: task pe rform anceim prove with s arousal le l the de ase ve n cre s. Difficult tasks pe rform anceis be at lowe le ls of st r ve arousal Difficult tasks re quireproce ssing of m inputs ore m atte ore ntion shifting 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 239 Ye s Dodson Law: rke Ge ral form ne ulation: task pe rform anceim prove with arousal le l the de ase s ve n cre s Difficult tasks pe rform anceis be at lowe le ls of arousal st r ve Easy tasks pe rform anceis be at highe le ls of arousal st r ve . Effe of stim cts ulants S ulants havegre st e ct in m tim ate ffe orning, whe arousal is lowe n r Effe of sle p de cts e privation (on arousal and task pe rform ) worse ove ance n r thecourseof theday 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 240 Ye s Dodson Law: I ndividual Diffe nce rke re s Eyse (1967): (e nck ndoge nous or naturally occurring) high arousal cause introve s rsion theindividual avoids situations that incre an alre high le l of physiological ase ady ve activation Low (e ndoge nous or naturally occurring) arousal cause e s xtrave rsion theindividual se ks e rnal stim e xte ulation and activity S upporting e nce vide : rts rformm poorly on vigilancetasks ore Extrave pe affe cre s rform anceof introve incre s pe rts, ase rform anceof e xtrave rts C inede ase pe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 241 Ye s Dodson Law: ADHD rke Ge ral form ne ulation: task pe rform anceim prove with arousal le l the de ase s ve n cre s Difficult tasks pe rform anceis be at lowe le ls of arousal st r ve Easy tasks pe rform anceis be at highe le ls of arousal st r ve . ADHD is associate with ve low arousal d ry Disruptiveim pulsivebe haviors areassociate with theindividual's atte pts to upd m re gulatearousal C nt tre e include stim urre atm nt s ulant m dication and C e BT 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 242 Em otion otions assign value to e rnal e nts, which: s xte ve Em s Motivate action. s Organize action. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 243 TheRoleof theAm ygdala ygdala is a ke structurein: y Theam e ward valueto stim uli. Theassignm nt of re ar l uli. Theconditioning of fe to nove stim lf-adm inistration of re warding brain stim ulation. These ct xpe e le ulation of theam ygdala Dire e rim ntal e ctrical stim e licits be havioral and autonom re ic sponse typical of s e otional re m actions. ygdala ne urons also re spond to com x socially ple Am re vant stim le uli 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 244 TheEm otional Ne twork d TheLow Road, involve in classical conditioning e us ygdala > hypothalam basal us, S nsory input > thalam > am ganglia & hippocam pus pus Hippocam not part of classical conditioning pathway HM & thepin-prick 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 245 TheEm otional Ne twork d clarativem m e ory TheHigh Road, involve in de e us nsory corte association corte x, x, S nsory input > thalam > se te poral corte for re m x cognition pre frontal for re sponse .... 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 246 Em otion & Le arning arning is a positivefunction of thestre ngth of the Le e otional re m sponse whe r positiveor ne , the gative to , thestudy m rials / e nts. ate ve atic ss r D). atic ve Post-traum stre disorde (PTS Traum e nts aredifficult to forge t. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 247 S m of Arousal & Atte um ary ntion cre s be Arousal de ase thenum r of inputs that can be proce d sse nce rform ance Arousal influe s task pe re s ract ulants, tim of e I ndividual diffe nce inte with stim day, activity, stre to influe task pe ss nce rform ance otional arousal affe atte cts ntion to som targe and e ts Em theprobability of som re e sponse to spe targe s cific ts r s ase issing Dange produce high arousal, incre d probability of m targe & de ase task pe ts cre d rform ance 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 248 Me ory and C xt m onte cognition & Re call Encoding, Re e ory Ebbinghaus and m m for lists d sis: all te e ory Analysis followe by synthe analyzesm discre m m tasks tting inform ation into m m e ory Encoding, ge d trie cognition m aking useof thestore d followe by re val or re inform ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 249 What is thenorm roleof al re cognition? ntation to place knowing whe you are , re Orie havior Guidanceof social be cognition of individuals Re om he C pre nsion of language , ctive fe havior Guidanceof productive prote , de nsivebe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 250 What is thenorm roleof al re call? ntation to tim e Orie havior Guidanceof social be call ation about individuals Re of inform ssiveuseof language Expre , ctive fe havior Guidanceof productive prote , de nsivebe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 251 How doe re s cognition occur? sse Top down and bottom up proce s sse Top down proce s ctation, m m prim e ory, ing Expe onte ffe ing ffe C xt e cts areprim e cts sse Bottom up proce s tim n S ulus drive 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 252 How doe re s cognition occur? sse d m Top-down proce s areguide by sche as once gorie scriptions C pts, cate s, structural de se le e m s cognition, Pre nceof e m nts of a sche a cue re re val of othe e m nts trie r le e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 253 How doe re s cognition occur? dge ost iliar ulti-m odal Knowle of m fam things is m s: rbal Pavio & dual code ve & visual dge any ly knowle of m things is like to be re se d in m pre nte ultiplese nsory code s pre ntation, in onese nsory Activation of onere se m odality, spre to othe re se ads r pre ntations of the thing 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 254 Massaro's the ory: FLMP ode rce Fuzzy logical m l of pe ption tim ation and conte inform xt ation S ulus inform provideINDEPENDENT source of inform s ation about theide ntity pe nt s ation arecom d to bine I nde nde source of inform providea be gue of what thestim m be st ss ulus ight 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 255 C xt e cts in pe ption onte ffe rce of spe ch e S e pe ption is cate pe ch rce gorical Wepe ivem aning, not sound rce e Wepe ivephrase rce s How any input is he de nds on conte ard pe xt....what com s be it ..... e fore and what com s afte it e r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 256 yntax is thestructural de scription of gram atical m S utte rance phrase or se nce s s nte s dge Our knowle of syntax is onesourceof top-down proce ssing of spe ch e C xt e cts in pe ption onte ffe rce of spe ch e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 257 Much spe ch is am e biguous Jim y He m ndrix "PurpleHaze " "Excusem whileI touch thesky" OR e "Excusem whileI touch this guy" e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 258 Warre & Phone ic Re n m storation S with passage thele tart : gislaturevote ... d De tephone e thele aturevote ... le m: gi d Add noiseto space thele * aturevote ... : gi d Liste r also he m ne ars issing phone e m: thele gislaturevote ... d * 19 of 20 subje he no m cts ard issing sounds. One ide ntifie thewrong sound as m d issing. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 259 Top Down Effect of Meaning on Speech Perception wheel The *eel was on the axle The *eel was on the orange The *eel was on the table The *eel was on the shoe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition peel meal heel 260 C xt e cts in pe ption onte ffe rce of spe ch e rce e Wepe ivem aning, not sound rce cts ne I n vision, wepe iveobje and sce s, not dots of light, dark, color 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 261 C xt e cts in onte ffe com he pre nsion of sce s and ne ve e hangeblindnee wese what wee ct ss: nts xpe C to se e ne Structural descriptions of sce s includetypical e m nts and re le e lationships of e m nts le e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 262 Re e be storie m m ring s lassic study of m m for storie e ory s C tt Bartle and "TheWar of theGhosts" cts ad ad> Had subje re thestory <re r e cts call Ove tim , had subje re thestory rie calls, m participants droppe the ost d During these s of re title nam s, num rs, and re re s to arrows and canoe , e be fe nce s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 263 Bartle and "TheWar of the tt S is constructe using a story sche a, om tory d Ghosts" m itting fore de ign tails (arrows and canoe s) De tion of de le tails is not a ge ral failureto e ne ncode be causesom e e xact words arere d. calle S m is a m ntal re se che a e pre ntation of a typeof knowle . dge 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 264 Bartle and "TheWar of the tt Ghosts" 2 ye late ars r: "S ewarriors we to wagewar against theghosts. The om nt y fought all day and oneof the num r was wounde The ir be d. y re turne hom in thee ning, be d e ve aring the sick com . As ir rade theday dre to a close hebe erapidly worseand the w , cam village cam round him At sunse hesighe som thing rs e . t d: e black cam out of his m e outh. Hewas de (Bartle 1932) ad." tt, 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 265 Bartle and "TheWar of the tt S is re tory constructe Ghosts"ste Europe story d using a (We rn an) sche a m Who arethem characte ain rs? What is thesituation? What do the do? y What is there solution? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 266 S m affe m m che as ct e ory construction and re construction During e ncoding and re our knowle dire our call, dge cts atte ntion to aspe of thestim cts ulus/situation/sce ne te otype e ctations, goals, sourcem s, xpe isattributions, S re conte e cts physical, social, historical xt ffe S m allow cognitivee che as fficie but bias e ncy ncoding and re construction and produceinaccuracy 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 267 Me ory is a constructiveproce m ss Flashbulb m m s e orie e d Docum nte sinceLincoln's assassination d ve rsonal shocks, Brown & Kulik studie 9 historical e nts and pe ide ntifie factors d onse ntiality C que he Re arsal im s s e orie nt, rsonal circum stance s, S ilaritie in structure of m m s: Eve pe inform ant d urobiological m chanismto re e tain Propose a "Now Print" ne biologically crucial but une cte e nts xpe d ve 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 268 Me ory is a constructiveproce m ss Ne r & Harsch PhantomFlashbulb m m s isse e orie halle rsonal conse ntiality of assassinations que C ngepe ignificanceis attache afte d rwards S es e orie rse rsonal narrative S e FB m m s as inte ction of pe and historical narrative 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 269 How accuratewe FB re Me orie of theC nge m s halle r De m r 1986, spaceshuttleC nge e ce be halle e xplosion? r xploded on launching Aske unde d rgraduate to fill out que s stionnaire thene s xt m orning: fre de e scription, and standardize que d stions; location, activity, inform tim , othe pre nt, ant, e rs se fe lings e 1988 contacte original sam , re d ple surve d, colle d ye cte confide ratings nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 270 How accuratewe FB re Me orie of theC nge m s halle r 50%we accuratee only onem attribute(location, re on ajor xplosion? activity, inform tim , othe pre nt) ant, e rs se 25%we wrong about e rything re ve 7%we substantially corre on all fiveattribute re ct s No significant re lationship be e confide and twe n nce accuracy of re call 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 271 Summary: Cognitive efficiency & inaccuracy ation is e ncode in theconte of what d xt Most inform wealre know ady dge What weknow, how weorganizeknowle (conce structural de pts, scriptions, sche as, scripts) is m a m de rm ajor te inant of BOTH how wee ncodeand how were e be mm r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 272 I nfant and LanguageLe arning Rove -Collie re e r sults and im plications Action, im itation, obse rvation le arning de nds on action pe Im portanceof e le arly arning S s of com unication tage m S s of languagele tage arning Re ading Autism 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 273 Two Type of De s clarativeLe arning arning (Nove Ite s) l m Early Le dge . No prior knowle available Must construct re se pre ntation of som part of theworld frompe ptual e rce input. ce arly arne I nfants arene ssarily e le rs. arning (Fam I te s) iliar m MatureLe dge ., laboration of Elaboration of prior knowle , i.e e se antic ne m twork. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 274 Rove -C r Me e ollie thod for de onstrating e le m arly arning Reinforcement No Reinforcement Without operant contingency there is no learning Long-term Long-Term Retention Test = Retention Retention Test = Baseline Immediate Ratio Baseline Ratio Retention Test 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 275 Re ntion inte is a function of age te rval For children 6-months and up pressing a button makes a train move 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 276 Re ntion I nte te rval te rval Re ntion inte is a function of: ssion duration training se be ssions num r of training se rval ngths be e se twe n ssions inte le te rval be Re ntion inte is a function of thenum r of re titions and theinte pe rvals be e re titions twe n pe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 277 Distribute le d arning is supe to m d le rior asse arning 3-month olds recognition test 8 days after day 0 Days of training sessions 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 278 Forge tting: I nitially infant kicks only to training m . At thee of the obile nd re ntion inte theinfant also kicks to nove m te rval l obile 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 279 C hanging e r them ithe obile(cue or crib line (conte e inate ) r xt) lim s re cognition 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 280 C onclusions rant le arning is there of fe dback froma sult e Ope voluntary action. d pe rior asse Distribute re tition is supe to m d re tition for le pe arning e ory taile cific. Early visual m m is de d and spe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 281 Causal Be haviors of Infant Le arning Action itation Im ocial I nte raction S r onths theinfant can follow pointing ge sture s. Afte 6 m onths theinfant points. By 10 m re lty I nte st-Nove onths an infant will im itatea puppe in re t aching for a glove At 6 m containing a hidde be n ll. rvation (De rre I m fe d itation) Obse otional e nts ve Em re ve I nte sting e nts onths an infant can im itatea puppe obse d at 3 m t rve onths. At six m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 282 Be ginning of LanguageLe arning arning e e s fromge ral com unication skills. m rge ne m Languagele otion Em re /Pare se pe formof spe ch that care rs usewith childre nte ":S cial e give n "Mothe se to conve m aning through sound patte y e rns. sture Ge r onths theinfant be to follow pointing ge gins sture s. Afte six m onths pince grips de lops and infant be to point. r ve gins At 8-10 m rbal m onths pre language dict Nonve com unication skills at 13 m ability up to 5 ye of age(Ulvund & S ith, 1996) ars m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 283 Challe s in Le nge arning to Unde rstand S n Language poke e e e S gm nting thecontinuous spe ch input into words l e Associating a nove word with its m aning. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 284 S e S gm ntation pe ch e e e e e S gm nting thecontinuous spe ch input into words haracte ristic stre patte ss rn C que m High fre ncy ite s re Mothe se Touch or usechild's nam whe starting. e n Usea high pitche voice d S ak slowly with e pause pe xtra s Re at instructions pe sis Analysis-by synthe through babbling l e Associating a nove word with its m aning. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 285 Early LanguageLe arning Ages Skill 0-12 Mo. Production Description Cooing: Infant produce phone e of all possiblelanguage s ms s (de infants include af d). At 6 mo.: Babbling: Produce only phone e of s ms language be acquire (not de infants). (s) ing d af By 5 mo.: discrim inate stre patte of own language s ss rns By 6 mo.: re cognize isolate words and sim cate s s d ple gorie (base on appe d aranceand function). By 10.5 mo.: se e words in flue spe ch. gm nts nt e S e pe ch Pe ption rce Ge ral ne com unim cation 05/13/09 From beginning: Em e otional utte its m rance s. 6 mo.: S econte om xt-inde nde m m pe nt e ory. 6 mo.: Can follow pointing ge sture s. 10 mo.: C cks adult e otion be acting. he m fore I ntroduction to C ognition 286 Le arning A Word's Me aning S gm nting thecontinuous spe ch input into words e e e Associating a novel word with its meaning. Social cues Attention cues Novelty 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 287 Early Word Le arning Age s 12-18 Mos. Skill Production Com he pre nsion Description 1-word utte rance 3 100 word vocabulary. s: We ve d conte inde nde in m m (can ll-de lope xt pe nce e ory m around). ove At 16 mo.: Can com social and e otional cue to bine m s associatewords not pre nt toge r (Tom llo, e al. se the ase t 1996). Two-word utte rance s By 2 yrs: Can com social and e otional cue bine m s fromspe ch of othe to le words. e rs arn Also, unde rstanding of gram ar be (Hall, Le & m gins e Be lange 2000). r, I ntroduction to C ognition 288 18-24 Mos. Production Com he pre nsion 05/13/09 Vocabulary surge Ages 24-60 Mos. Abilities Rapid growth of vocabulary and, afte 500 words, le r arning of syntax. By 3 yrs: Associate ne words with nove obje (Markm & s w l cts an Wachte 1988). l, By 4 yrs: Use corre age s ct nt-action-obje se ncerule (Akhtar, ct que s 1999). Unde rstands that instance of a cate s gory sharenon-obse rvable characte ristics (Ge an & Markm 1986). lm an, 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 289 Vocabulary Growth e ory) arly Phonological loop (working m m critical for e vocabulary growth. orre twe n pe C lation of 0.5 be e nonword re tition and vocabulary for childre 4-5 ye old. n ars e nt nte ge y arne By thetim a stude e rs colle the havele d 6-10 words a day be e theage of 5 and 18 and twe n s know about 50,000 words. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 290 C gorization ate C gorie giveinform ate s ation not pre nt in theinput stim se ulus. De lopm nt of se antic m m de nds on e le ve e m e ory pe arly arning is an e laboration of e le arly arning As childre ge olde the cate n t r, ir gory structure be em s com ore sophisticate d: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Living & non-living. Artifacts (functional) & othe obje r cts. Eve & physical obje nts cts. I nte ntional e nts & othe e nts. ve r ve Abstract conce & e nts pts ve Fam re m ily se blance s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 291 Re ading arne tte rsion, which I nitially le d through le r-sound conve m s English particularly difficult, but the use dire ake n s ct vision-to-m aning routefor high-fre ncy words. e que n rs ct . Eve first grade usedire route ading has a largee ct on: ffe Re vocabulary growth. ve e m de lopm nt of gram ar. ne ge ral cognitivefunctioning. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 292 Autism Associate with im d paire social re d lationships, languagele arning, and cognitivede ficits. De fining characte ristic is im paire social re d lationships vide nts: ye Littleobvious e nceof "bonding" with pare postural adaptation, clinging, e contact, se paration anxie ty Typically include de d and ste otype spe ch s laye re d e pe re d rns Re titiveand ste otype play patte Fluctuating arousal that im pairs se ctiveatte le ntionactions to m stim m bee m inor uli ay xtre e Re actions to intrusivestim m not beappare uli ay nt Re om rn e ss, m C pulsiveconce for sam ne syste atizing Me ory and inte ctual functioning m beintact, but m ofte arenot m lle ay ore n ite ory ind" ntions or pe ctive of othe rspe s rs Lim d or no "the of m about theinte 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 293 S m of infant & languagele um ary arning Infant le arning is a boot-strapping ope ration Action, re tition, fe dback facilitatere ntion pe e te In e rim ntal situations, distribute e xpe e d xposureproduce longe re ntion than m d s r te asse e xposure Languagele arning de lops frome otional e ssive ss and ge ve m xpre ne stural com unication m Inte raction with m r/care r is critical to languagele othe give arning Two tasks: 1. S gm nting thespe ch stre into words e e e am 2. Acquiring m aning for ne words e w C gorization thestructureof se antic m m -- is built on thefoundation of language ate m e ory le arning 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 294 I nfant Le arning Me ltzhoff Barr, Vie Rove -C r ira, e ollie Vide clips o 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 295 Me ltzhoff (1988) De d im laye itation in infants Re producing nove actions is cognitive m difficult than re l ly ore producing fam actions iliar 14 m onth-old infants, shown activitie with six toys; two fam (be and e four de s iliar ar gg), signe d and constructe for thee rim nt d xpe e itation condition Two control conditions and an im ontrol 1: no e xposureto obje cts C ontrol 2: e xposureto prope s of obje not targe rtie cts, t C actions itation condition: an adult de onstrate spe actions with e toy: "dance the m s cific ach " Im be shakethee (rattle be p an obje pull-apart an obje fold-ove an obje ar, gg ), e ct, ct, r ct, "bop" obje with he to m light turn on. ct ad ake t pe d e e cts re le Targe action re ate thre tim s; actions and obje we NOT labe d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 296 Me ltzhoff (1988) De d im laye itation in infants I nfants te d onewe k late ste e r Afte warm e toy pre nte late to contact re r -up, ach se d, ncy corde 20 d, se conds of contact allowe actions (on vide tape score d, o ) d itation condition produce 3 or m targe d ore t 11 of 12 infants in theim actions on te sting d ore t 3 of 24 infants in thecontrol condition produce 3 or m targe actions What is thesignificance Long-te re ntion of re se ? rm te pre ntation of an action, not infant's own action; not a labe d action not m diate le e d by language 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 297 Whe doe im n s itation be gin? At birth.... Me ltzhoff & Moore(1989) Im itation in ne wborns: not just tongueprotrusion 40-hour old ne onate shown he rotation and tongueprotrusion; s ad Both ge sture im d s itate Othe facial ge r sture im d by ne s itate onate "Oh" m s: outh, lip pucke & r protrude Im itation can't bee xplaine by conditioning, d innatere asing m chanism im le e s probable 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 298 What arethelim of im its itativele arning? Bar, Vie & Rove -C r, 2001 ira, e ollie I nfants as young as 6 m onths can de onstratede rre im m fe d itation of actions, BUT ne d longe e e r xposure m pre ntations, and , ore se re e be fe r actions than 9-m m m r we onth olds. I nfants as young as 3 m onths can de onstratede rre im m fe d itation of actions but ne d re inde (S nsory pre e m rs e -conditioning) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 299 Information is encoded along with context and associations w ation m atche a store re se s d pre ntation Ne inform d re ve twork/hie rarchy is store at a diffe nt le l, association / ne form d, m m of thefirst obje ve is re ve e e ory ct/e nt trie d pre ntations arestore in a ne d twork, re activation of one I f two re se re se pre ntation also re activate theothe s r ing--facilitativee ct of prior pre ntation of an ite ffe se m Associativeprim or e nt on re ve cognition/re val of associate obje ve trie d cts/e nts ing atic dural pe ptual- REACTIVATION rce Prim autom proce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 300 Infant memory & reactivation onth olds le to m m arn ove obileby kicking 3-m e e r K obile Two we ks/four we ks late DON'T KI C to m f xposureto m oving m obileREAC VATESm m (but slowly) TI e ory Brie e Memory of one event reactivated when memory of an associated event is primed Tim ons (1994) 6-m m onth olds ove obile Foot kick m m usic Armwave turn on m box n e e Forgotte in thre we ks e usic r ste obile d Prim d with m box, late te d with m , kicke 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 301 Early memory & reactivation Toddle visit lab playroom six m rs , ulti-ste activitie at diffe nt stations p s re Forge activitie t s Re turn and se thre of original activitie pe e e s rform d by e rim nte e xpe e r Ne day, re xt turn to lab and re produce m of non-prim activitie than childre in d ore e s n control group Prim s activate m m s for prim d activitie AND m m s of there aining thre e d e orie e s e orie m e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 302 What are the limits of imitative learning? 6-m onth olds could im itatem le actions afte a 24-hour de if had ode d r lay 60 se conds of obse rvation, but not 30 se conds Barr, Vie & Rove -C r 2001 ra e ollie 60 se conds of e xposure im e , m diateim itation, te d at incre ste asing de lays to de rm theforge te ine tting function Puppe (Rabbit or m ) shown to baby, E re ove "glove with be t ouse m s " ll, shake E re s, place glove s Re ate six tim s pe d e Te Thre opportunitie to im st: e s itatetarge action t Te d afte 1, 2, 3 days ste r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 303 What are the limits of imitative learning? Barr, Vie & Rove -C r 2001 ra e ollie Puppe I m t itation S core / Train Task n.s. 1 2 3 7 14 21 Re ntion inte (days) for 6-m te rval onth olds I ntroduction to C ognition 304 05/13/09 What are the limits of imitative learning? Bar, Vie & Rove -C r, 2001, 2002 ira, e ollie 6-m onth-olds' re ntion of an im te itation task norm 1 day ally Prolonge to 2 we ks whe associate with an ope d e n d rant task usually re e be d for 2 we ks (train task) m m re e Im itation task: Puppe with a "glove and a be in theglove t " ll . Expe e r take off theglove& shake it, ringing rim nte s s thebe ll I F m m for thetrain task is te d first, im d thepre e ory ste itate viously obse d rve puppe task. I f im t itation te d first, no de rre im ste fe d itation occurre d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 305 Train / Puppet Experiments Bar, Vie & Rove -Collie 2001 ira, e r, Two ide ntical training se ssions, two conse cutivedays TRAIN TASK Infant base with train, 6-m line inuteacquisition pe riod Each le r pre activate train for 2-se ve ss d conds S ssion e d with 1-m e nde inutenon-re inforce e pe to te im e m nt riod st m diatere ntion at ze te ro-de lay To continue re , sponseratehad to be>= 1.5 base rateof le r pre line ve ssing for at le two ast conse cutivem inute on oneof thedays s, PUPPET TASK Im e m diate afte train task, 2nd day; fivere titions: show puppe re oveglove shakeglove ly r pe t, m , , re placeglove . Infants allowe to im d itatetheactions thre tim s. e e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 306 Train / Puppet Experiments Bar, Vie & Rove -Collie 2002 ira, e r, 20 days afte se r ssion 2: all but forge tting control group re ive re ce d activation tre e Two atm nt conditions Passivee xposureto nonm oving train for 2 m inute s Re produce m m nt during last 2 m d ove e inute of se s ssion 2 Untraine re d activation control: no training, yoke train m m nt to thepatte of anothe d ove e rn r (traine infant d) Forge tting control: no re activation prior to te st NEXT DAY Te d for 2 m ste inute with non-m s oving train OR Expose for 2 m d inute to m s oving train THEN all re ive a 2-m ce d inuteim itation te with puppe (with no be st t ll) 2-m re ntion te with non-m in te st oving train 6-m inutere acquisition training with train 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 307 Train / Puppet Experiments Bar, Vie & Rove -Collie 2001 ira, e r, Re sults Im itatePuppe t? No Training, Re activation Control Forge tting Control Moving Train pre -cue Non-m oving train pre cue N NS Ye s Ye s N NS Ye s Ye s Pre Bar? ss Infants form d an association be e train and puppe tasks and prim onetask indire e twe n t ing ctly prim d theothe task as we e r ll. If them m of train task not re ve at te e ory trie d sting, ne r was puppe task. ithe t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 308 Train / Puppet Experiments Bar, Vie & Rove -Collie 2001 ira, e r, Thetrain task was le d be thepuppe task arne fore t Expe e 1: train prim s puppe rim nt e t Can puppet prime train? Can "backward priming occur?" S etraining sce am nario/ 30 se cond re activation e xposureto puppe 3 re titions of task t, pe Puppe re t activation: puppe prim 20 days afte training, te on t e r st day 21 Puppe t-only control group didn't le to m train, arn ove re activate with puppe d t 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 309 Train / Puppet Experiments Bar, Vie & Rove -Collie 2002 ira, e r, Re sults Im itatePuppe t? Pre Bar? ss Puppe Re t activation Puppe only control t Ye s NS Ye s - Bi-dire ctional associations ARE form d be e incide e nts e twe n ntal ve FAS MAPPI NG: Ability to m m aning, function re T ap e lations, and prope s to obje afte rtie cts r a fe incide e w ntal xposure and re veafte long de (McNam 1992) s trie r lays ara S cialize for word-le pe d arning/ge ral le ne arning m chanism e Re sults sugge fast m st apping functions in advanceof activelanguageacquisition 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 310 Implications of Train / Puppet Experiments FAS MAPPI NG: an e T ncoding m chanismfor building com x associativene e ple tworks S PREADI NG AC VATI ON: a re val m chanism TI trie e Thre assum e ptions of spre ading activation m l ode Activation spre through a ne ads twork of m m node e ory s Whe an ite is re ve fromm m its re se n m trie d e ory, pre ntation is activate d Re sidual activation of m m node facilitate re val of re d inform e ory s s trie late ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 311 Joint Atte ntion: An e social and com unication skill arly m Pare and infant pay atte nt ntion to sam obje activity e ct, Re cts ability to coordinateatte fle ntion within an inte rsonal inte rpe raction, taking gaze patte of othe into account rns rs Joint atte ntion skills e e 7 8 m m rge onths Lack of joint atte ntion associate with autismand othe atypical de lopm nt d r ve e Joint atte ntion re d to late re ptivelanguage(r = .70) and m we late r ce ore akly to e ssive xpre language(r = .50) Initiating joint atte ntion at 13 m onths pre dicts both re ptiveand e ssivelanguageat 15 ce xpre m onths 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 312 Turn-taking: thefirst ste toward role ps -taking C ate re s: a the of "othe ory r" e "m e of m arly e ting inds" e fram work for com unication arly e m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 313 Sm e antic Le arning De clarativeMe ory: S m m e antic Me ory & Episodic Me ory (Chapter 10) m m What is going on in thebrain as wele arn? What m s le ake arning e or difficult? asy Distribute re tition / re arsal d pe he Hie rarchical organization Knowle dge Constructing im ry age Em otion What can go wrong with m m e ory? Norm aging al Ante rogradeam sia ne Me ory disorde m rs 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 314 Sm e antic Le arning: What is going on in thebrain as wele arn? What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Re cognition syste working m m frontal corte & te poral corte m e ory x m x Me te poral corte hippocam & ante thalam dial m x pus rior us Em otional S m am yste ygdala Re tition of e rie pe xpe nce Mne onic actions m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 315 Sm e antic Le arning: What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. Re cognition syste m Ability to construct representations in working memory by associating pe ptual input with structural de rce scriptions in long-te m m rm e ory temporal cortex Frontal cortex: Unde rstand a sce , a se nce plan a m m nt & anticipate ne nte , ove e conse nce que s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 316 Sm e antic Le arning: What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. Re cognition syste m 2. Me te poral corte hippocam dial m xpus- and ante thalam rior us Re se pre ntations constructe in working m m MAY bee d e ory ncode and m d ade part of se antic m m m e ory Me te poral corte can beactivate in any oneof thre diffe nt ways dial m x d e re to e ncodea re se pre ntation fromWM into LTM Weknow that dam to e r structure age ithe im pairs spatial m m in anim and hum e ory als ans and se antic m m in hum m e ory ans. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 317 Anterior Thalamus 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 318 To basal forebrain Front of brain Right side 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 319 Sm e antic Le arning: What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. 2. Re cognition syste m Me te poral corte hippocam and ante thalam dial m x pus rior us 3. Em otional S m yste I f am ygdala switch for e otional input - tags a re se m pre ntation with a high le l of arousal, a re se ve pre ntation is e ncode d 4. Re tition of construction of a re se pe pre ntation through re ate e rie pe d xpe nce 5. Mne onic actions: actions inte d to e m nde ncodere se pre ntations such as ve re arsal and construction of visual im ry rbal he age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 320 Mam illary bodie m s fornix am ygdala 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 321 Sm e antic Le arning: What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. Re cognition syste m Wese , or he or fe l som thing and construct re se e ar, e e pre ntations in working m m in e ory frontal corte by associating thepe ptual input with structural de x rce scriptions in longte m m fromte poral corte rm e ory m x Frontal corte Unde x: rstand a sce , an e nt, a se nce plan a m m nt re ne ve nte , ove e sponse& anticipateconse nce of re que s sponse 2. 3. 4. 5. Me te poral corte it m ge store de nding on ... dial m x ay t d, pe Em otional S m I s it scary? Doe it hurt? yste s Re tition of construction of a re se pe pre ntation through re ate e rie Has pe d xpe nce this happe d be ? ne fore Mne onic actions: actions inte d to e m nde ncodere se pre ntations such as ve rbal re arsal and construction of visual im ry Do I re at a ve or visual he age pe rbal re se pre ntation of thee nt/fact/word? ve 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 322 Sm e antic Le arning: What arethebrain m chanism for de e s clarativele arning? 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Re cognition syste m Me te poral corte dial m x Em otional S m yste Re tition of construction of a re se pe pre ntation through re ate e rie pe d xpe nce Mne onic actions: actions inte d to e m nde ncodere se pre ntations such as ve rbal re arsal and construction of visual im ry he age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 323 Sm e antic Le arning: What m s le ake arning e or difficult? asy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distribute re tition short-te or long-te d pe rm rm Hie rarchical organization Knowle dge C onstructing im ry age Em otion 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 324 Sm e antic Le arning: What m s le ake arning e or difficult? asy 1. Distribute re tition--OKAY, BUT WHY ???? d pe Distribute re titions allow an e nt/obje d pe ve ct/pie of inform ce ation to bee ncode in d m than oneconte ore xt Distribute re tition re d pe quire that a m s atching re sponsebedonefromLTM rathe r than fromworking m m e ory Expe e Evide : rim ntal nce Madigan (1969) S nts we give a list of 48 words to le and the re afte se ing e word tude re n arn n call, r e ach twice . S e rim ntal conditions varying thelag be e thefirst and se ix xpe e twe n cond pre ntations of theword se 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 325 Sm e antic Le arning: Madigan (1969) S nts we give a list of 48 words to le and the re afte se ing e word twice tude re n arn n call, r e ach . S e rim ntal conditions varying thelag be e thefirst and se ix xpe e twe n cond pre ntations of theword se 0 lag com b com b dish dish apple 05/13/09 2 lag com b dish apple com b piano 4 lag com b dish apple piano ze bra com b 8 lag 20 lag com b e tc dish apple piano ze bra... .. 40 lag e tc I ntroduction to C ognition 326 Sm e antic Le arning: Madigan (1969) S nts we give a list of 48 words to le and the re afte se ing e word twice tude re n arn n call, r e ach . S e rim ntal conditions varying thelag be e thefirst and se ix xpe e twe n cond pre ntations of the se word: 0, 2, 4, 8, 20, 40 Probability Of re call Lag be e pre ntations twe n se 05/13/09 02 4 8 20 40 327 I ntroduction to C ognition Sm e antic Le arning: Madigan (1969) Re is gre im call atly prove by spacing thepre ntation of words rathe than m d se r assing the m toge r the Probability Of re call Lag be e pre ntations twe n se 05/13/09 02 4 8 20 40 328 I ntroduction to C ognition Sm e antic Le arning: Madigan (1969) Re is gre im call atly prove by spacing thepre ntation of words rathe than m d se r assing the m toge r the What accounts for thee ct of spacing? ffe 1. 2. Distribute re titions allow theinput to bee d pe ncode in m than oneconte d ore xt Re cognition of an ite in distribute re tition is re m d pe cognize fromLTM. d Long te re ntion of a list of words re rm te quire re se s pre ntation of thelist and its com nts pone If a com nt is still in WM, m pone atch of input is m to WM re se ade pre ntation. If com nt out of WM, m pone atch of input m to re val fromLTM, which ade trie incre s theodds of it be associate with thelist re se ase ing d pre ntation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 329 Sm e antic Le arning: C uddy and Jacoby (1982) Factors that re ducetheodds that a se cond pre ntation of a stim can bem se ulus atche to WM d re se pre ntation forcing re activation of re se pre ntation in LTM e nhancere call Johnson & Uhl (1976) Re cognition of im e m diatere tition is an autom pe ptual proce that will le pe atic rce ss ave atte ntion fre for othe tasks e r BUT re cognition of a de d re tition would bea voluntary proce involving LTM and laye pe ss would inte rewith anothe task. rfe r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 330 Sm e antic Le arning: Johnson & Uhl (1976) Re cognition of im e m diatere tition is an autom pe ptual proce that will le atte pe atic rce ss ave ntion fre for e othe tasks r BUT re cognition of a de d re tition would bea voluntary proce involving LTM and would inte re laye pe ss rfe with anothe task. r S nts did two tasks at once using he tude , adphone s Right e Liste d to words re ate e ry 5 se ar: ne pe d ve conds m d or distribute asse d...e word ach re ate four tim s pe d e Le e Liste d for faint tone pushe button whe he tone ft ar: ne s, d n ard Com b...com b...com b... com b 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 331 Sm e antic Le arning: Johnson & Uhl (1976) Re cognition of im e m diatere tition is an autom pe ptual proce that will le atte pe atic rce ss ave ntion fre for e othe tasks r BUT re cognition of a de d re tition would bea voluntary proce involving LTM and would inte re laye pe ss rfe with anothe task. r S nts did two tasks at once using he tude , adphone s Right e Liste d to words re ate e ry 5 se ar: ne pe d ve conds m d or distribute asse d...e word re ate four ach pe d tim s e Le e Liste d for faint tone pushe button whe he tone ft ar: ne s, d n ard RT Distribute re titions d pe Masse re titions d pe 05/13/09 1 2 3 4 I ntroduction to C ognition 332 Sm e antic Le arning: Johnson & Uhl (1976) Thede ase re cre d action tim with e re tition in them d condition sugge that e e ach pe asse st ach re tition took le atte pe ss ntion. Theincre d re ase action tim with e re tition in thedistribute condition indicate that e ach pe d s re val of thestudy word fromLTM for re trie cognition inte re with de ction of rfe d te thetone . RT Distribute re titions d pe Masse re titions d pe 05/13/09 1 2 3 4 I ntroduction to C ognition 333 Sm e antic Le arning: Long-te distribute re tition rm d pe Bahrick (1993) Ve le rbal arning distribute ove days, re ntion asse d ove ye d r te sse r ars Le word pairs English & Fre or English & Ge an arn nch rm Give Fre or Ge an word, task was to re theEnglish m aning n nch rm call e S e Rue tre t Tre e Arbre Ball Ballon S e tre t Tre e Ball S trasse Baum Ball S diffe nt sche s of training se ix re dule ssions with 50 word pairs, varying num r of training be se ssions (13 or 26) and training inte rvals (14, 28, 56 days apart) Re te d at re ntion inte call ste te rvals of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ye ars. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 334 Sm e antic Le arning: Long-te distribute re tition rm d pe Bahrick (1993) Ve le rbal arning distribute ove days, re ntion asse d ove ye d r te sse r ars Le word pairs English & Fre or English & Ge an arn nch rm Give Fre or Ge an word, task was to re theEnglish m aning n nch rm call e S diffe nt sche s of training se ix re dule ssions with 50 word pairs, varying num r of training se be ssions (13 or 26) and training inte rvals (14, 28, 56 days apart) Re te d at re ntion inte call ste te rvals of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ye ars. %Re d calle 80 26 sessions 13 sessions 50 10 14 05/13/09 Training inte rvals 28 56 I ntroduction to C ognition 335 Sm e antic Le arning: Long-te distribute re tition rm d pe Bahrick (1993) Initially, -- during training -- re was gre r for theshorte training inte call ate r rvals, but at re st te thelonge training inte r rvals cle produce highe re arly d r call. Re sults did not vary ove r re ntion inte te rvals (1, 2, 3, 5 ye frominitial training). ars Number of sessions and training interval increased recall. %Re d calle 80 26 sessions 13 sessions 50 10 14 05/13/09 Training inte rvals 28 56 I ntroduction to C ognition 336 REM S e and distribute practice le p d Onethe of m m consolidation is that REM sle p aids in consolidation of ory e ory e mm e ory....transfe fromhippocam to te poral corte r pus m x. Me ory trace arevulne m s rableto inte re until afte thefirst post-e rfe nce r xposureonse of sle p t e S e pe secle has a significant rolein m m consolidation, but non-REM sle p m play le p r arly e ory e ay a roleas we or inste of REM sle p. ll, ad e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 337 What m s le ake arning e r? Ve re arsal asie rbal he Re arsal is theact of im e he m diate ge rating fromm m a string of inform ly ne e ory ation that you havejust he or se n. ard e He phonenum r " 732 545 2500 " or nam " De k Huang" ar be e re Translatephone ically re se d codeinto an articulatory codeand say thestring m pre nte Re ating thephone ic or phonological code cre m Phonological articulatory inte gration occurs in parie lobe m tal , aking re arsal he possible 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 338 What m s le ake arning e r? Ve re arsal asie rbal he Re arsal is theact of im e he m diate ge rating fromm m a string of inform ly ne e ory ation that you havejust he or se n. ard e Effe of re arsal: cts he short-te ke ps these ncein working m m rm e que e ory long-te hie rm rarchically organizetheite s in these nceunde cate m que r gory node so the form s, y a chunk and can bere ve toge r. trie d the Re arsal is a voluntary action whosepurposeis to le som thing, to he arn e incorporateit into othe m m s r e orie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 339 De lopm nt of re arsal as a m ta-cognitivestrate ve e he e gy Most childre do not spontane n ously re arseite s to re e be the he m mm r m Kinde rgarte & first gradechildre n n: pontane re arse re e be lists of picture be r than do non-re arse ous he rs m m r s tte he rs S he rs provelist re whe instructe to re arse call n d he Non-re arse im r he rs prove pe d rform ancewith re arsal abandone the he d Ove half on non-re arse who im strate gy Me e ory is an aspe of m ta-cognition, thechild's unde ta-m m ct e rstanding of he own m m and r e ory own thought proce s sse By third grade school childre will re arseif told to do so, but m useine , n he ost fficie strate s nt gie (com com com com b, b, b, b) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 340 Im e m diateS r-span re upe call S r-span re m ans re of a list whe thele upe call e call n ngth of thelist e e thespan (capacity) xce ds of working m m e ory. Thespan or capacity of working m m is a function of e ory iliarity of ite s + m Fam late ss m ach r Re dne of ite s to e othe + ilarity of theite s m Articulatory sim 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 341 Im e m diateS r-span re upe call Whe pe areaske to im e n ople d m diate re a supe ly call r-span list, in any orde r Recency effect -- high probability that last four itemswill berecalled Working m m usually include articulatory re se e ory s pre ntations for thelast four ite s m Giving a task, such as counting backwards be re disrupts there ncy e ct fore call, ce ffe Primacy effect: someearlier itemshavebeen encoded semantically and may be ge rate high probability first and se ne d, cond ite s re d. m calle 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 342 Im e m diateS r-span re upe call: Prim e ct acy ffe Whe pe areaske to im e n ople d m diate re a supe ly call r-span list, in any orde ge re ncy e ct r, t ce ffe and prim e ct acy ffe What cause theprim e ct? s acy ffe ighth grade childre spontane , n ously re arselists he By e he y ar e w m Participants re arseas the he / se ne ite s ginning of thelist re ivethem re arsal re titions and doing so in the ce ost he pe Words at thebe m iddleand e of thelist nd 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 343 S m um arizesupe span re rcall Im e m diatere of a supe call r-span list produce a U-shape se position curve s d rial : 1. Re ncy portion re se re val fromauditory working m m (thephonological ce pre nts trie e ory loop) 1. 1. Prim portion re se re val fromlong te m m acy pre nts trie rm e ory Whe there ntion inte is fille with a distractor task that e inate thelast n te rval d lim s ite s fromworking m m there ncy e ct disappe m e ory, ce ffe ars 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 344 Von Re storff e ct ffe If a fe atureof an ite in a list attracts atte m ntion to theite and incre s its re arsal, m ase he The theite is m like to bere e be d re n m ore ly m m re gardle of its position in a list. ss De sse re of ite s pre ding and following it on thelist. pre s call m ce De rm & Ellis (1972): stude studying lists of linedrawings, e be d in half of the tte an nts m dde lists, photographs of nude s...nudephotos re e be d by 100%of stude in m m re nts e rim ntal group, ite s in othe positions (e pt last two) we le like to be xpe e m r xce re ss ly re d by e rim ntal groups than by control group calle xpe e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 345 Von Re storff e ct ffe If a fe atureof an ite in a list attracts atte m ntion to theite and incre s its re arsal, the m ase he n theite is m like to bere e be d re m ore ly m m re gardle of its position in a list. Also, it ss de sse re of ite s pre ding and following it on thelist. pre s call m ce S on alm S ole Haddock Tuna Violin Groupe r Trout C od S ardine Macke l re Which ite will bem m m m ore e orable ? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 346 I s re tition alonee pe nough?.....we no ll, Them com on com ost m plaint I he fromstude ar nts: "I re thechapte and theslide ove and ove and I still did poorly on thete ad r s r r st." Glass, e al (1989) had stude shadow a se nceof 150 digits pre nte at onedigit pe t nts que se d r se cond.....in four conditions Continuous condition 786839210065438924734089562786839210 S nts could not re tude cognizethere ate string pe d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 347 I s re tition alonee pe nough?.....we no ll, Glass, e al (1989) had stude shadow a se nceof 150 digits pre nte at onedigit pe t nts que se d r se cond.....in four conditions Segmented condition 786839210 065438924 734089562 786839210 S nts COULD re tude cognizethere ate string im e pe d m diate afte ly rwards BUT on a delayed re cognition task, shadowing othe strings de r stroye d re cognition (Re troactiveI nte re ) rfe nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 348 I s re tition alonee pe nough?.....we no ll, Glass, e al (1989) had stude shadow a se nceof 150 digits pre nte at onedigit pe t nts que se d r se cond.....in four conditions rehearsal condition 786839210 <re arse he > 786839210 <re arse he > 065438924 <re arse 734089562 <re arse he > he > S nts COULD re tude cognizethere ate string im e pe d m diate afte ly rwards AND on a delayed re cognition task, shadowing othe strings did NOT r producere troactiveinte re rfe nce A working m m re se e ory pre ntation m bea by product of pe ption, but a long te ay rce rm se antic re se m pre ntation is a by product of AC TION 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 349 Re arsal and S m he e antic Re se pre ntation Tulving (1962): stude re a se of words in about thesam orde on succe nts call t e r ssivere atte pts, call m e n whe ite s arepre nte in diffe nt orde in study trials. ve n m se d re rs Buschke(1973, e Fuld & Buschke(1976) tc), Participants le d randomlists of words arne Word orde studie on succe r d ssivere atte pts call m S ecluste of words found, re cting chunks into which thelist was organize am rs fle d. Le arning a list involve com s bining sm r chunks into large one alle r s....organizing into a hie rarchy 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 350 S m of Ve Re arsal um ary rbal he Ve re arsal has two conse nce rbal he que s 1. Maintains thephonological re se pre ntation of a word in m m by re e ory articulating thewords. 1. Builds a hie rarchical se antic re se m pre ntation of theword se nce que . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 351 Sm e antic Le arning: What m s le ake arning e or difficult? asy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distribute re tition short-te or long-te d pe rm rm Hie rarchical organization Knowle dge C onstructing im ry age Em otion 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 352 Sm e antic Le arning: Afte e childhood, ve littleis truly nove (ne r arly ry l w) Whe som thing (re n e lative ne is e ly) w ncounte d, only thediffe nce be e the re re s twe n re se pre ntation of theNEW THI NG and a m m re se e ory pre ntation of a sim ilar thing ne d to bee e ncode d. S tructural de scriptions includevisual structural de scriptions of sce s, syntactic ne structural de scriptions of se nce and sche as of storie nte s, m s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 353 Sm e antic Le arning: What is your structural de scription of psychological conce pts? Be havioral m anife station De lopm ntal origin ve e Biological / Brain basis Expe ntial influe s rie nce S ocial influe s nce S ocial im pact Im pact of aging or dise ase 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 354 S what aretheim o, plications for theway you should study? A working m m re se e ory pre ntation m bea by product of pe ption, but a long te se antic ay rce rm m re se pre ntation is a by product of AC ON TI Use actions: ful 1. Pre w thechapte and form vie r, ulatea fe que w stions writethe down! Ask the out loud! m m 2. Inste of unde ad rlining or highlighting thete takenote e r in them xt, s, ithe argins of your book or in a note book. 3. Re your unde cite rstanding of theanswe to your que rs stions....e xplain it to your room ate m , frie goldfish, dog, or carpe nd, t 4. Draw picture cre flashcards, charts or table sum arizing im s, ate s m portant points 5. Forma study group and taketurns answe que ring stions form ulate by m m rs of the d e be group.....confe on lineif you can't confe in pe r r rson. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 355 Now, back to chapte 7...... r Applying knowle to word list le dge arning.... C gorize lists can bere d m m com te than lists with thesam conte ate d calle uch ore ple ly e nt that arenot cate gorize d.... Hie rarchical organization aids re val trie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 356 Visual im ry age High im ry ite s arem like to bere e be d than low im ry ite s age m ore ly m m re age m Be & S ge (1971): list le vab te r arning with childre and adults n ...actual obje picture and nam s.... cts, s, e ...For both agegroups, re of obje nam s was be r for obje than picture and call ct e tte cts s be r for picture than words. tte s Bowe (1972) Instructions to useim ry to le paire associatelist ite s produce r age arn d m s highe re than re arsal instructions. 85%vs 33% r call he Bowe & Winze inte r nz: ractiveim ry instructions vs linking se nceinstructions: age nte im ry produce highe re but both ve high age d r call, ry 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 357 Visual im ry age Bobrow & Bowe (1969) Linking se nce m e ctivewhe cre d by thele r r nte s ore ffe n ate arne C pare re for paire associate whe participant m up linking se ncewith om d call d s n ade nte re for yoke participants who we give word pairs and linking se nce m up call d re n nte s ade by othe rs. S nts in thee rim ntal group re d 58%of there tude xpe e calle sponsewords, yoke controls d re d 29% calle C ating thelinking se nce re nte s....is an ACTI ON....ACTI ON to cre linking se nce ate nte s produce gre r le d ate arning than passive studying thelinking se nce ly nte s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 358 Visual im ry and dual e age ncoding Encoding with im ry incre s thelike age ase lihood of dual e ncoding....cre ating both visual re se pre ntations and acoustic re se pre ntations of word pairs or conce pts. Drawing atte ntion to an aspe of a study ite that m not beautom ct m ight atically e ncode d e nhance thele s arning of theinput. Any task that e ncourage dual e s ncoding incre s le ase arning. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 359 Visual im ry and dual e age ncoding Encoding with im ry incre s thelike age ase lihood of dual e ncoding....cre ating both visual re se pre ntations and acoustic re se pre ntations of word pairs or conce pts. Drawing atte ntion to an aspe of a study ite that m not beautom ct m ight atically e ncode d e nhance thele s arning of theinput. Any task that e ncourage dual e s ncoding incre s le ase arning. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 360 S tructural de scriptions, story le arning and com he pre nsion C onstructing re se pre ntations of storie or e s ssays links ne inform w ation to store structural d de scriptions.....of activitie s...of e xisting knowle .... dge De scription of doing laundry....uninte table until you know it is about laundry rpre , C Harris / He n Ke r.... arol le lle Oncean ite is inte m grate into an e d xisting structure .... Pe soon areunableto discrim ople inatene knowle fromold w dge 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 361 Em otion and Le arning Fe grie joy m e nts m m m ar, f, ake ve ore e orable De ssion im pre pairs le arning lack of atte ntion is onelike cause but an unde ly , rlying cause m contributeto both de ssion and im ay pre paire cognitivefunctioning in m case d any s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 362 S m um ary ake arning e or difficult? asy What m s le 1.Distribute re tition short-te or long-te d pe rm rm 2.Hie rarchical organization 3.Knowle dge 4.C onstructing im ry age 5.Em otion 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 363 What can go wrong with m m e ory? Norm aging: shrinkage not loss, of ne al , urons in frontal corte and te poral corte x m x I n 70's, is a notice de able clinein le arning ability for ne m rial....it take longe to le w ate s r arn...but olde r pe can and do still le ople arn. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 364 What can go wrong with m m e ory? Brain dam and ante age rogradeam sia ne rogradeam sia: inability to re e be e nts afte a brain injury ne m m r ve r Ante ral age s ild ficits (le te poral dam m produce ft m age ay Uni-late dam produce only m de profound aphasia) ral age rior m ic i ct Bilate dam to inte of te poral lobeor thalam nucle that conne with hippocam produce ante pus s rogradeam sia ne ost ous HM is them fam case Re trogradeam sia: inability to re e be e nts be a brain injury: inte ne m m r ve fore rrupts unconsolidate m m s d e orie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 365 What can go wrong with m m e ory? Te porary am sias m ne He injury in sports ad Transie Global Am sia nt ne Alcohol induce am sia d ne 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 366 What can go wrong with m m e ory? Pe ane and progre rm nt ssiveam sias ne Bilate dam to m dial te poral corte or pathways to it ral age e m x Thre type of disorde e s rs 1. Only proce of form ne m m re se ss ing w e ory pre ntations is im paire (m dial te poral d e m lobeor thalam nucle ic i) Othe cognitivefunctions areintact, se antic m m is intact r m e ory I f dueto thalam dam (ante nucle calle die phalic am sia ic age rior i) d nce ne 1. Long-te m m re se rm e ory pre ntations arealso de stroye (m dial and late te poral d e ral m lobe ) Ante rogradeam sia plus se antic de e (Alzhe e ne m m ntia im rs) 1. Proce of form associations am m m re se ss ing ong e ory pre ntations is im paire (basal d ganglia) Ante rogradeam sia and loss of voluntary m m nt (Huntington's dise ne ove e ase 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 367 What can go wrong with m m e ory? Korsakoff's syndrom dueto dam to thalam e age us Othe cognitivefunctions m beintact r ay Alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrom : thiam de ncy in addition to alcohol abuse e ine ficie Dam to ne age urons of m m am illary bodie fromcom d thiam de ncy and s bine ine ficie alcohol use acutephaseof thedisorde m befatal : r ay C onfusion & m dysfunction of lim if not tre d, dieof m otor bs; ate id-brain he orrhage m . If tre d, ante ate rogradeam sia, and typically othe cognitivechange ne r s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 368 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t Routineactivitie arere se d as scripts with two com nts: a se antic com nt and s pre nte pone m pone an e cutivecom nt xe pone Action se nce obje roleplaye locations associate with fam e nts like"m que , cts, rs, d iliar ve aking bre akfast," "going to class," "going to work," "going on a date "hooking up" ," cripts areconside d fundam ntal to goal dire d be re e cte havior and social inte raction S ontrove ove theroleof pre rsy r frontal corte e cutiverolein se ncing or a x: xe que C re se pre ntational rolein storage(likete poral lobestore obje re se m s ct pre ntations) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 369 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t C pare script com he om d pre nsion in thre groups with a group of norm controls e al 1. Alzhe e Dise im rs ase 1. 1. Fronto-te poral de e m m ntia: Be havior Disorde r/Dyse cutivesyndrom xe e FTD: S m e antic de e m ntia 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 370 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t C pare script com he om d pre nsion in thre groups with a group of norm controls e al 1. Alzhe e Dise im rs ase 1. 1. Fronto-te poral de e m m ntia: Be havior Disorde r/Dyse cutivesyndrom xe e FTD: S m e antic de e m ntia 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 371 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t C pare script com he om d pre nsion in thre groups with a group of norm controls e al Alzhe e Dise : e im rs ase pisodic m m loss, dueto hippocam de rioration and loss of ne e ory pal te urons in corte x Fronto-te poral de e m m ntia: Be havior Disorde r/Dyse cutivesyndrom xe e prom nt changein social conduct and pe ine rsonality, including im pulsiveand inappropriatebe havior (e .g., swe aring, shoplifting), lack of conce for pe rn rsonal appe aranceand hygie , apathy, lim d ne ite e pathy, and disinhibition (e grabbing food fromanothe plate inappropriatese m .g., r's , xual be havior). C ognitiveim pairm nts re cting atte e fle ntional de and e cutivedysfunction ficit xe fre ntly occur in conjunction with be que havioral disturbancepote ntially contributing to im paire d se ction and organization of theconstitue obje and actions in a script. This profileis le nt cts associate prim d arily with dise in pre ase frontal and ante te poral brain re rior m gions, particularly in theright he isphe m re Fronto te poral de e m m ntia: S m e antic de e m ntia 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 372 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t C pare script com he om d pre nsion in thre groups with a group of norm controls e al Alzhe e Dise : e im rs ase pisodic m m loss, dueto hippocam de rioration and loss of ne e ory pal te urons in corte x Fronto-te poral de e m m ntia: Be havior Disorde r/Dyse cutivesyndrom xe e Fronto te poral de e m m ntia: S m e antic de e m ntia characte d prim rize arily by a flue formof aphasia in which knowle for them aning of nt dge e words and obje de riorate This m com cts te s. ay prom script com he ise pre nsion by inte ring with knowle for these antic conte (obje and actions) of a script. rfe dge m nt cts Associate with de ne d ge ration of thele te poral lobe ft m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 373 Action S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) ose t Pre nte subje with 22 scripts of four ste e in thre conditions: C ct, se antic e se d cts ps, ach e orre m rror, se ncing e que rror; aske "doe theactivity m se ?" d s ake nse Sm e antic e rrors we obje e re ct rrors or action e rrors S que e ncing e rrors we conce re ptually im plausibleor physically im plausible Washing thedishe s 1.C ar dishe fromtable le s 2.S crapefood fromdishe s 3.Wash dishe with sponge s 4.Dry dishe s Washing thedishe s 1.C ar dishe fromtable le s 2.S crapefood fromdishe s 3.Wash dishe with m s op 4.Dry dishe s Washing thedishe s 1.C ar dishe fromtable le s 1.Wash dishe with sponge s 2.S crapefood fromdishe s 1.Dry dishe s Going C ping am 1.Pack food and supplie s 2.Look at com pass 3.Hiketo cam psite 4.S e in te le p nt Going C ping am 1.Pack food and supplie s 2.Look at com pass 3.Hiketo cam psite 4.S e on top of te le p nt Going C ping am 1.Look at com pass 2.Pack food and supplie s 1.Hiketo cam psite 2.S e in te le p nt Baking a Birthday C ake 1.Takeingre nts fromcabine die t 2.Mix ingre nts die 3.Placepan in ove n 4.S candle in cake tick s Baking a Birthday C ake 1.Takeingre nts fromcabine die t 2.Mix ingre nts die 3.Placepan in ove n 1.Drop candle on cake s Baking a Birthday C ake 1.Takeingre nts fromcabine die t 1.S candle in cake tick s 2.Mix ingre nts die 1.Placepan in ove n 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 374 S cripts and De e m ntia C ntino, e al (2006) Action scripts and thre type of de e ose t e s m ntia Re sults Thre de e groups m m e e m ntia ade ore rrors than norm controls al Norm controls did not pe al rformdiffe ntly on se antic & se ncing e ite s re m que rror m FTD:BDD pe rform d significantly worsede cting se ncing e e te que rrors than se antic e m rrors Patie with se antic de e and AD, pe nts m m ntia rform d e e qually poorly on se ncing e que rrors and se antic m e rrors Had also adm iniste d te of se antic im re sts m pairm nt and e cutivefunction e xe Me asure of se antic im s m pairm nt pre d BOTH se ncing e e dicte que rrors and se antic e m rrors Me asure of e cutivefunction pre d only se ncing e s xe dicte que rrors in script proce ssing Re sults areconsiste with a two proce m l of script e cution, with Pre nt ss ode xe frontal corte handling x se ncing and e cution and te poral corte storing re se que xe m x pre ntation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 375 S m um ary Ante rogradeam sia is theinability to le ne facts, to e ne arn w ncodene m m s of e nts w e orie ve 1. Re sults fromBI LATERAL dam to m dial te poral corte or to conne age e m x cting are in as thethalam us 2. De clarativem m is im e ory paire d 3. Pe ptual m skill le rce otor arning is norm al Dise or dam to broade are of thete poral lobeproduce ante ase age r as m s rogradeam sia and ne se antic de e m m ntia 1. De ficits in working m m m beappare be othe m m de e ory ay nt fore r e ory ficits 2. Be causeof thede rioration in se antic m m patie with Alzhe e dise te m e ory, nts im r's ase don't show prim e cts ing ffe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 376 C gorization and Mne onics ate m Ability to cate gorizeunde s ability to re rlie spond adaptive ly How do weacquire /construct/le cate s? arn gorie How doe action affe cate s ct gorization? Arem m ne onics still re vant? Pape writing tools areche le r, ap. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 377 C gorization and Mne onics ate m How do weacquire /construct/le cate s? arn gorie I nfants, sm childre the arepe ptual sim all n re rce ilaritie am instances to which s ong thesam re e sponseis m ade 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 378 How do weacquire /construct/le arn cate s? gorie I nfants, sm childre the arepe ptual sim all n re rce ilaritie am instances to which s ong thesam re e sponseis m ade An INS TANC is any thing that can bere E cognize d. A se of instance m havean obvious fe t s ay aturethat m s instance appe sim ake s ar ilar. I nstance havethesam structural de s e scription. May havethesam ge sam basic shape e ons, e . Re se pre ntations of theke constant fe y, atureor "good part" arestore along with d re se pre ntations of instance s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 379 How do weacquire /construct/le arn cate s? gorie 1. 2. The arepe ptual sim re rce ilaritie am instances to which thesam re s ong e sponse is m ade S ilarity is notice and ve im d rbally labe d. le "Thecats havee thecats havetails, wecall the ars, cats' fe t paws. Thecats havesoft fur. Littlecats e arekitte Me says them m cat to he ns. ow om a r kitte m ow m ow. Tige arebig wild cats. ns, e e rs GRRR says thetige r." 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 380 How do weacquire /construct/le arn cate s? gorie 1. 1. The arepe ptual sim re rce ilaritie am instances to which thesam re s ong e sponseis m ade S ilarity is notice and verbally labeled. Nam dire atte im d ing cts ntion to fe ature that s m not beobvious. Many conce arede d by visual re se ay pts fine pre ntations. "theanim all havele Le als gs. t's count thele one two, thre , four. gs, , e Thecat, and thedog and thecow havefour le and fur, and what is gs, diffe nt about thecow? Horns on re its he What e is diffe nt ad! lse re about thecow? Wege m from t ilk cows." 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 381 How do weacquire /construct/le arn cate s? gorie 1. 2. The arepe ptual sim re rce ilaritie am instances to which thesam re s ong e sponseis m ade S ilarity is notice and verbally labeled. im d 1. C gorie form d e in lifeformthebasis of e ate s e arly laborate hie d rarchical re se pre ntations s ncode d Moreinstance aree tails about instance aree s ncode d Morede S ecate s arede d by functions or use om gorie fine s. C gorie areconsciously alte d and e ate s re xpande through le d arning 1. 1. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 382 C gorization ate finition De rce gorization TheRoleof Pe ption in Cate e antics in Cate gorization TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 383 C gorie have ate s : tructural de scriptions and instance s S ce ating in a fast food re staurant S narios and locations; e rce m pre ntations Pe ptual and se antic re se re nte s What McDonald's looks likeand why you go the ; se nce and the m anings ir e s Whole and Parts n s . What McDonald's looks likeand what thegolde arche looks like 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 384 De finitions n ove obilewem call ay Whe an infant kicks to m a m them : obile sponse Thetarget of thekicking re sponse Thestimulus of thekicking re sponse Thecue for thekicking re oving m obileis theconse nceof theact of que Them kicking. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 385 Ge ralization ne n e s e que Whe thesam action produce thesam conse ncein re sponseto m than onetarge theprobability of a nove ore t, l obje activating a re se ct pre ntation of theaction and its conse nceis a function of its sim que ilarity to all pre vious targe of theaction. ts d ove re obile An infant who has kicke to m two diffe nt m s will kick to m a third m ove obilethat is a com positeof thepre vious two. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 386 Le arning a Ge ralization ne ore ts ore ly l Them targe of an action, them like that a nove input will m atch thetarge se sufficie to e theaction. t t ntly licit nce n d e que ore He , whe an action has produce thesam conse ncefor m than onetarge there is a bootstrap e ct be e thenum r t, sult ffe twe n be of targe associate with theaction and theprobability of a ne ts d w targe e t liciting theaction. ate ty ts e ssfully Thegre r thevarie of targe to which an action has be n succe dire d (i.e produce thesam de d re cte ., d e sire sponse thegre r thevarie of ), ate ty targe that will e theaction. ts licit arns that kicking can m two diffe nt m s, theinfant ove re obile Oncean infant le will kick to any m . obile 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 387 C gorization ate n pre ntations of diffe nt ite s be eassociate re m com d Whe re se with thesam conse nceof thesam action, theite s are e que e m said to beinstances of thesam category. e xplicit cate gorization, in addition to othe possible r Ine actions uniting theinstance theaction of nam produce s, ing s thesam re e sult, theve cate labe for theinstance rbal gory l, s. d All colors arecalle colors. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 388 C gorization ate finition De ate s re ts e C gory instance arediffe nt targe of thesam action. rce gorization TheRoleof Pe ption in Cate e antics in Cate gorization TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 389 C gorization ate finition De rce gorization TheRoleof Pe ption in Cate ate s Natural C gorie al ate s Form C gorie ate s Artificial C gorie e antics in Cate gorization TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 390 C gorization ate finition De rce ate TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization ate s Natural C gorie n s atically m atch fe ature in e othe re se s ach r's pre ntations Whe instance autom as there of pe ptual organization sult rce nce se gorie te ine rce m s He , the cate s arede rm d by how thepe ptual syste organize theinputs. xam , gorie ide For e ple color and shapecate s (He r, 1972) al ate s Form C gorie ate s Artificial C gorie e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 391 C gorization ate De finition rce ate TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization ate s Natural C gorie n s atically m atch fe ature in e othe s ach r's Whe instance autom re se pre ntations as there of pe ptual organization sult rce sult rce e ature arem salie s ore nt As a re of pe ptual organization, som fe than othe rs. alie ature m cate s ake gorization e so that cate s m beform d asy gorie ay e S nt fe by sim obse ple rvation, e n without instructions to do so (Frie and ve d Holyoak, 1984). ple olor gorie ," Exam s: C cate s, "chair," "table "bird." ate s Artificial C gorie e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 392 Natural Re ctangleC gorie ate s r r rsus r r. Highe than wide ve wide than highe d e May besorte without fe dback. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 393 S nt Fe alie ature s nt ature of a re se s pre ntation arethose Thesalie fe fe ature that arewe s ighte m he d ost avily by the pe ptual syste in de rm rce m te ining thesim ilarity be e two re se twe n pre ntations. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 394 Noseis m salie fe ore nt aturethan e so it ars; de rm s cate te ine gory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 395 C gorization ate finition De TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization rce ate ate s Natural C gorie gorie gorie xist Basic level cate s arenatural cate s that e in thepe ptual syste and theworld. rce m ple ," Exam s: "chair," "table "bird." al ate s Form C gorie ate s Artificial C gorie TheRoleof S m e antics in Cate gorization 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 396 C gorization ate De finition TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization rce ate ate s Natural C gorie gorie gorie xist rce m Basic level cate s arenatural cate s that e in thepe ptual syste and the world. C cate s: te s vary by culture but focal colors areunive olor gorie rm , rsal ssion in color te s: rm Progre black, white , d Black, white re , d, e llow, or blue ) Black, white re (gre n, ye Most language havecolor te s for 11 colors: black, white re gre n, ye s rm , d, e llow, blue , brown, purple pink, orange gray , , Form C gorie al ate s ate s Artificial C gorie TheRoleof S m e antics in C gorization ate 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 397 Basic Le l Natural C gorie ve ate s st gory e be any Arebroade cate at which m m rs havem pe ptual fe rce ature in com on. s m ilar s. Havesim shape ong gorie arne Aream thefirst cate s le d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 398 PictureNam of Basic C gorie ing ate s s cts e gory Picture of obje arenam d by thebasic cate te 99%of thetim . rm e ve xpe re Howe r, e rts arediffe nt. ople xpe taile dge Pe with e rtise(de d knowle of diffe nce am cate m m rs) usethe re s ong gory e be subordinatete to nam picture of obje in the rm e s cts ir are of e rtise a xpe . am rs gorie a xpe . S eas othe for cate s not in are of e rtise 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 399 C gorization ate finition De rce ate TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization ate s Natural C gorie al ate s Form C gorie s gory do not autom atically m atch fe ature in e s ach Theinstance of a cate othe re se r's pre ntations as there of pe ptual organization. sult rce al gorie e rvation. Rule de s, scriptions, Form cate s arenot form d just by obse or fe dback m begive to a le r for cate e ust n arne gory conce to beform d. pt e ve le rce ature areuse to re s d cognizeinstance of s Ne rthe ss, pe ptual fe form cate s al gorie e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 400 Form C gorie al ate s Ve brate rte s Am phibians Re s ptile Fish Birds Mam als m C lassification of anim into taxonom cate s is not base prim als ic gorie d arily on pe ptual sim rce ilarity. Prototypical instance of e of thecate s will havehigh pe ptual s ach gorie rce sim ilarity with m instance of that cate any s gory. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 401 C gorization ate finition De rce ate TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization ate s Natural C gorie al ate s Form C gorie ate s Artificial C gorie s atically m atch fe ature in e othe s ach r's instance do not autom re se pre ntations as there of pe ptual organization. sult rce s, scriptions, or fe dback m begive to le r for cate e ust n arne gory Rule de conce to beform d. pt e ve le rce ature areuse to re s d cognizeinstance of s Ne rthe ss, pe ptual fe artificial cate s gorie e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 402 An Artificial Cate gory S gre r than tilt ve tilt gre r than size (I ize ate rsus ate . haveno ide what this m ans) a e Re quire fe dback for le s e arning. Rulem not becapableof articulation by le ay arne r. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 403 C gorization ate finition De rce gorization TheRoleof Pe ption in Cate e antics in Cate gorization TheRoleof S m rce atching, an obse r e rve xtracts I n addition to pe ptual m and labe pe ptual fe ls rce ature for a te s chnical de finition containing de fining fe ature s ggs athe A birds lay e and all birds and only birds havefe rs 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 404 C gorization ate finition De rce gorization TheRoleof Pe ption in Cate e antics in Cate gorization TheRoleof S m rbal ling rce ature m s cate s ake gory Ve labe of pe ptual fe de finitions possible . nt arne rbal finition plays Oncesufficie languageis le d, ve de a rolein cate le gory arning e antics ve labe and de rbal ling finition is ce ntral to Sm form cate s al gorie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 405 Ge an & Markm (1986) study lm an 34 years of age Bird (flamingo) gives baby mashed food; Bat gives milk. What does (black)bird do? 68% say mashed food 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 406 C gorization ate finition De rce ate TheRoleof Pe ption in C gorization e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m rbal ling rce ature m s cate s ake gory de finitions Ve labe of pe ptual fe possible . nt arne rbal finition plays a rolein Oncesufficie languageis le d, ve de cate gory le arning ate s ay fine rce ature s. C gorie m also bede d by nonpe ptual fe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 407 Type of C gorie s ate s rce Pe ptual. cts als, tc.) Most obje (rocks, anim e Functional. , apon, occupational, e tc. Tools, furniture we Kinship. r, , tc. Mothe uncle e Abstract. , tc. Justice e ate s fine num ration. C gorie de d by e e tte t. 26 le rs of thealphabe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 408 C gorization ate e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m rbal ling rce ature m s cate s ake gory Ve labe of pe ptual fe de finitions possible . nt arne rbal finition plays a Oncesufficie languageis le d, ve de rolein cate gory le arning ate s ay fine rce ature s. C gorie m also bede d by nonpe ptual fe ate s rnal te ine ilarity C gorie haveinte structurede rm d by thesim am instance ong s. dge gory include s: Knowle of a cate dge s Knowle of typical instance dge s Knowle of atypical instance que nce Fre ncy of occurre . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 409 C gorization ate e antics in C gorization ate TheRoleof S m rbal ling rce ature m s cate s ake gory Ve labe of pe ptual fe de finitions possible . nt arne rbal finition plays a Oncesufficie languageis le d, ve de rolein cate gory le arning ate s ay fine rce ature s. C gorie m also bede d by nonpe ptual fe ate s rnal te ine ilarity C gorie haveinte structurede rm d by thesim am instance ong s. ate s rarchically organize and shareinstance d s C gorie arehie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 410 Ve cate rbal gorization m s hie ake rarchical organization possible ate ls ay ate s d C gory labe m betre d as instance and associate with m ge ral cate labe ore ne gory ls. tc. am als; am als als Dogs, cats, e areall m m m m and fish areanim aturele arning de nds on prior knowle . pe dge All m l m d xisting cate gory labe on thebasis ls Nove ite s areassociate with e of sim ilarity to fam instance The arethese antic iliar s. se m associations. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 411 Sm e antic C gorization and Le ate arning e antic cate gorization is thebasis of de clarativem m e ory Sm sult, additional re se pre ntations areactivate whe a d n As a re pe ptual re se rce pre ntation is constructe d. e antic cate gorization also facilitate proce s dural m m e ory Sm ate s scriptions m it possibleto ake C gory node in structural de autom atically construct an infinitenum r of pe ptual be rce re se pre ntations 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 412 Summary of categorization Most cate s corre gorie spond to concre obje that arede d by pe ptual te cts fine rce re se pre ntations Most cate s arecom d of instance to which were gorie pose s spond in thesam way e Natural cate s areform d by obse gorie e rvation and labe ling Form cate s arede d by rule but m instance sharepe ptual fe al gorie fine s, any s rce ature s C gorie can befunctional or social ate s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 413 Mne onics m m laboration and visual im ry age Makeuseof se antic e ate cial Associatestudy m rial with spe structural de scriptions (chunking) ne onic ful cific Each m m is use for a spe kind of study m rial. ate 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 414 C m Mne onics and S om on m tudy S gie trate s thod of Loci Me g e Pe word Rhym diation Natural LanguageMe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 415 C m Mne onics and S om on m tudy S gie trate s thod of Loci Me d nt e . Use in Ancie Gre ce aginetheto-be m m re obje in a se s of place -re e be d cts rie s Im in a ve fam location. ry iliar g e Pe word Rhym diation Natural LanguageMe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 416 C m Mne onics and S om on m tudy S gie trate s thod of Loci Me g e Pe word Rhym m g e xam : Me orizea pe word rhym , for e ple , e e tc. Oneis a bun, two is a shoe thre is a tre , e e arning orde d lists of ite s: re m Usetherhym for le re que age ach age g C atea se nceof im s in which e im links the"pe word" and theite to bere e be d. m m m re diation Natural LanguageMe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 417 g e Pe word Rhym diation Natural LanguageMe C m Mne onics and S om on m tudy S gie trate s Me thod of Loci e ss rm e e Associatea m aningle te with som thing that is m aningful. xam , arning nonse trigram associate"ptg" with "pape nse s, r For e ple in le tige r". om d age e lps C bine with im ry, natural languagem diation he with le arning fore vocabulary. ign nte s: ry s ; Anagramse nce Eve Good Boy Doe Fine On old Olym pus's te rribletop, a Finn and Ge an bre d som rm we e hops 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 418 Fam Mne onists ous m m ithe ry e orie Mne onists e r haveve rich visual m m s or have e ncode ve de d ve patte d ry taile rbal rns. ous ne onists Fam m m ssor . n: Profe A.C Aitke dge be Hugestoreof knowle about num rs. be gie Largenum r of strate s for doing calculations. ducetheproble to a m m anage load on working m m by re able e ory coding it. Re : S azing m m was there of syne sia. e ory sult sthe Am 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 419 S m of m m um ary ne onics m chnique that im s provere for call Mne onists usethete ave pe too: rage ople arily visualization (m thod of loci, pe word), but e g Prim also rarchical organization (anagramse nce nte s) Hie e Association (natural languagem diation) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 420 Overview: Retrieval: Recognition Re cognition take tim . s e Re cognition unde unce r rtainty: S DT Re cognition abilitie s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 421 TheTim C e ourseOf Re val I n I nfants trie e ple ly trie e ory r Tim to com te re vea m m afte a re inde m r. 3m onth-old: 6m onth-old: 12 m onth-old: 72 hours 4 hours < 1 se cond 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 422 S s for a Re tage cognition Judgm nt e Feature Analysis Stage. Vision Occipital Corte x Hearing Te poral C x m orte Comparison Stage. Me te poral C x: dial m orte Lim syste + thalam + surrounding corte bic m us x Response, Selection, & Integration Stage. Te poral Corte m x 05/13/09 Pre frontal corte x 423 Decision Stage.I ntroduction to Cognition De cision S : Judgm nt Type tage e s "Recognition" can refer to: ntification / cate gorization. I de onte e C xtual judgm nt. nse ct ve . A se that an obje or e nt was at a particular place m e e Te poral judgm nt (having to do with tim ). e fore Haveyou se n this be ? ce e Re ncy: Haveyou se n this within thelast 24 hours? que any e e Fre ncy: How m tim s haveyou se n this? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 424 I de ntification / C gorization Judgm nt ate e ate r ultiple C gorization of an input occurs afte m com parisons havebe n m in paralle with m m e ade l e ory re se pre ntations. t. cts gorization Nosofsky, e al.: I nstancetypicality affe cate be causean instanceis com d with m cate pare any gory m m rs e be and sim ilaritie com d. s pute n n ntifying a frie you com nd, pareinput to m ultiple Eve whe ide re se pre ntations. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 425 C xtual judgm nt in e rim nts onte e xpe e atch be e theprobeand a twe n A part-wholem re se pre ntation of thestudy conte containing it is xt re quire d. ore ilar st xt Them sim thete conte is to thestudy conte them like that m xt, ore ly atching de tails that distinguish thestudy conte will befound. xt ple r stions on an e . xam Exam : Orde of que 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 426 Te poral Judgm nt m e ce Re ncy: n ce Did this happe re ntly? xam , e m se d For e ple did you just se this ite in thelist pre nte a littlewhileago? que Fre ncy: ore que Which is m fre nt: A or B? que e twe n How fre ntly did you se X be e 1998 and 1999? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 427 Expe nce affe rie s cting te poral judgm nts m e e antic association Sm dge t's ntity and/or conte xt Knowle of targe ide rce Pe ptual e iliarity or nove lty Fe ling of fam 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 428 Fam iliarity and Fre ncy que ciding how m tim s you'vese n som thing m be any e e e ay De de rm d by a fe ling of fam te ine e iliarity. uristic that is e r than trying to re e be all the asie mm r A he individual instance and counting the up. s m ation that re sults in fe ling of fam e iliarity is Theinform autom atically e ncode d: r hrom (1977): Te iak lling stude that them m task nts e ory Hashe and C would bespe cifically about fre ncy did not im que provepe rform . ance ubje ust nd rwisepoor fre ncy que S cts m beableto atte to theinput (othe judgm nts), but the do not spe e y cifically ne d to count theinstance e s. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 429 I nte S m of Re rim um ary cognition e ay ade Moreonethan onekind of judgm nt m bem (know vs. re e be pe ptual vs. se antic), froma m m r; rce m singlepie of inform ce ation. re s n ple I nfe nce areofte drawn fromincom te inform ation and arem unde unce ade r rtainty. decision criteria must be established for distinguishing targets from distracters. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 430 Recognition Judgments I ntroduction s cognition Judgm nts e Type of Re s e Type of Judgm nts Judgment Under Uncertainty Signal Detection theory m m r/Know Mode of Re l cognition Re e be an cognition Abilitie s Hum Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 431 S ignal De ction The te ory Response Target State of Target Hit World Distracter False Alarm 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Distracter Miss Correct Rejection 432 S ignal De ction The Re te ory: ading m m am ogram che s, st x-rays S hadow is a tum or S hadow isn't a tum or Tum pre nt or se Hit No tum or Miss False alarm 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Correct Rejection 433 S ignal De ction The S gic De nse te ory: trate fe Activity is m s Activity isn't issile m s issile I ncom m s ing issile pre nt se No incom ing m s issile 05/13/09 Hit Miss Correct Rejection 434 False alarm I ntroduction to C ognition Pay-off m atrix: thecost of a wrong de cision lativecosts of diffe nt type of wrong re s There de cisions affe re ct sponsebias. sponsebias crite rion-- what doe it taketo say s Re "ye unde conditions of unce s" r rtainty rion: m fe l ve fam ust e ry iliar High crite rion: only re quire "som " s e Low crite 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 435 Probability of occurre curve nce Two factors contributeto unce rtainty of de ction, unce te rtainty of re cognition: e rnal noise xte and inte (ne noise rnal ural ) 100% Noiseonly "S ignal" with noise Probability of a give le l n ve of inte rnal re sponse 0% I nte Re rnal sponseFam iliarity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 436 Thebrain is a continuously se nsitivere ive ce r iliarity distributions ove for poorly-le d targe rlap arne ts Fam and distracte rs rion ta) iliarity m beuse to ust d A crite (be valueof fam discrim inatetarge fromfromdistracte ts rs s ust e d te ine Both hits and falsealarm m bem asure to de rm discrim inability (d'). ople r ir nsitivity and crite ria Pe diffe in the se 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 437 Probability of occurre curve nce C rion rite Correct Rejections Noiseonly Misses "S ignal" with noise 100% Probability of a give le l of n ve inte rnal re sponse Hits False Alarms 0% I nte Re rnal sponseFam iliarity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 438 Probability of occurre curve nce d' is highe thesignal is m r: ore discrim inable Noiseonly "S ignal" with noise 100% Probability of a give le l of n ve inte rnal re sponse 0% I nte Re rnal sponseFam iliarity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 439 Probability of occurre curve nce d' is lowe thesignal is e ntially r: sse im possibleto discrim inatefromnoise Noiseonly "Signal" with noise Probability of a give le l of n ve inte rnal re sponse 100% 0% I nte Re rnal sponseFam iliarity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 440 Probability of Occurre and Re ive Ope nce ce r rating C haracte ristic C s urve I f thehit rate= falsealarmrate the , re is no re cognition TheROCcurvecapture thevarious alte s rnative that areavailableas thecrite is s rion shifte to highe and lowe le ls. d r r ve 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 441 Ke param te y e rs ta, rite ve rtainty, or fam iliarity Be C rion: le l of ce re quire for a re d cognition re sponse an individual's ; de cision rule x inability (spre be e signal ad twe n d' : inde of discrim only & signal + noisedistributions); for an individual, a m asureof se e nsitivity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 442 Recognition Judgments I ntroduction s cognition Judgm nts e Type of Re s e Type of Judgm nts e r rtainty S ignal De ction the te ory Judgm nt Unde Unce Remember/Know Model of Recognition an cognition Abilitie s Hum Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 443 Two-Factor The ory onte m que e ay d C xtual, te poral and fre ncy Judgm nts m bebase on e r there val of a se antic association or a ithe trie m fam iliarity judgm nt. e l Atkinson Juola (1974) Mode r l Mandle (1980) Mode l Tulving Mode 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 444 Atkinson-Juola Mode l tage he ry iliar iliar. S 1: C ck if input is ve fam or unfam d ry iliar n pte t I f a probeis judge to beve fam the it is acce d as a targe (know). d ry iliar n d I f a probeis judge to beve unfam the it is judge to bea distracte r. tage xtre e iliarity S 2: I nput is not at high or low e m of fam (re e be m m r). rm diatefam iliarity the it m becom d fe n ust pare ature I f a probehas inte e by-fe aturewith thepre ntation of thestudy ite . se m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 445 Re e be m m r-Know Mode (Tulving) l tage S 1 m trie d twe n I f a se antic association is re ve be e theprobeand a re se pre ntation of thestudy conte (part-wholem xt atch) a remember judgm nt is m and it is classifie as a targe e ade d t. tage S 2 iliar e ade I f theprobeis fam a know judgm nt is m and it is classifie as a targe d t. iliar d r. I f theprobeis unfam it is classifie as a distracte 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 446 What is fam iliarity? m Working Me ory ce e Re ncy Judgm nt m Association with te poral list tag rm m Long-te Me ory r trie Faste re val r ve Highe le l of activation any xts Association with m conte 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 447 Re cognition Judgm nts e I ntroduction s cognition Judgm nts e Type of Re s e Type of Judgm nts e r rtainty S ignal De ction the te ory Judgm nt Unde Unce m m r/Know Mode of Re l cognition Re e be ct Mirror Effe an cognition Abilitie s Hum Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 448 Mirror Effect (things are reversed in mirrors: more memorable material has higher hit rate and lower false alarm rate) que r r s High fre ncy words haveboth lowe hits and highe falsealarm than lowe fre ncy words. r que an xplaine by assum m know judgm nts for high fre ncy d ing ore e que C bee words be causeof highe fam r iliarity but m re e be judgm nts for ore m m r e low fre ncy words. (re e be in conte que mm r xt) diction: Pre trie xtual association take longe than m s r aking a fam iliarity Re ving a conte judgm nt e iting tim for a re e cognition judgm nt will affe re e be judgm nts but not e ct m m r e Lim know judgm nts. e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 449 Joorde & Hockle (2000) ns y High Fre ncy que Te Tim Hits st e unlim d ite Low Fre ncy que Hits 0.80 0.71 F.A.s 0.18 0.34 F.A.s 0.26 0.41 0.75 0.69 800 m s Best memory is for low frequency words with unlimited recognition time. Restricting time affects hit rate, not 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 450 difference in false alarm rates. Why should lowe fre ncy words bebe r r que tte re e be d? m m re tudy (Le arning hypothe sis) S ate lty ncourage m re arsals s ore he Gre r nove during study e (Von Re storff e ct). ffe st trie sis) Te (Re val hypothe inablebe causefe r conte othe than we xts r Morediscrim study conte arere ve xt trie d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 451 Re cognition Judgm nts e an cognition Abilitie s Hum Re rvie Ove w iliarity Roleof Fam e Roleof Judgm nt 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 452 Re cognition Abilitie s ople xtre e rform e ing xact m atche on: s Pe aree m ly good at pe Visual input. ounds. S Words. cognizing sm lls. e Not so good at re e n asily. But sm lls arenot forgotte as e ople cognizing picture arenot supe at s rior Pe good at re re cognizing words. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 453 PictureRe cognition Observers Study Set Size 4-year olds 100 adults adults adults Immediate Up to Retention One week At least a month 98% 97% 90% 87% 91% 85% 67% 58% 612 2500 10,000 At least 5 second presentation rate 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 454 PictureRe cognition ve Face(pe rsus rson) Re cognition Vicki Bruce(1982): rve e s Obse rs se 12 picture of fam individuals and 12 iliar of strange rs. cognition is of thesam e Re pictureor diffe nt picture re of sam facein diffe nt e re profilewith diffe nt re e ssion. xpre 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Same 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Familiar Novel Differ 455 S m of re um ary sults e High accuracy for thesam picture im e l S ilarly, high accuracy for sam pictureof nove faceand diffe nt pictureof fam face re iliar ve uch r re l Howe r, m lowe accuracy for diffe nt pictureof nove face onclusion: visual m m is ve spe but capableof e ory ry cific C ge ralization through le ne arning 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 456 FaceRe cognition s iliar tte cognize than face of d s Face of fam individuals be r re unfam individuals iliar s iliar s tte cognize than face of d s Face of fam race be r re unfam race iliar s onclusion: fam iliarity influe s thenum r of fe nce be ature s C e ncode he , ultim ly, thespe d, nce ate cificity of re cognition 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 457 Ne le xt cture Eyewitne ide ss ntification & te ony stim 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 458 Re - Ge ration call ne Re tasks can't becom te with a "ye call ple d s/no" re sponse Pote ntial answe (targe arege rate by cue rs ts) ne d s Ge rate answe ne d rs-instance (targe arere sts) cognize (or not) d Proactiveinte re m occur, with e r cue and instance rfe nce ay arlie s s inte ring with re val of additional ite s rfe trie m rfe nce ss ly rarchically organize d Proactiveinte re s is le like for hie inform ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 459 Re call r Distracte Paradigm rvie Ove w ne cognition Ge ration & Re ne Ge ration cognition Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 460 Re call r Distracte Task rvie Ove w ne cognition Ge ration & Re ne Ge ration cognition Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 461 TheDistracte Task r Subject sees a trigram (e.g., XBR) Immediately, subject starts counting backwards by 3's. For e r: ithe 3 se c. 9 se c. 18 se c. Repeat with new trigram Subject attempts to recall the trigram. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 462 Ke l & Unde ppe rwood (1962) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 463 ProactiveI nte re rfe nce trie e ory pe t Theability to re vea m m tracede nds on these of uniquecue that activatethetrace s . r re s I n thedistracte task the areno uniquecue that distinguish them re nt ite frome r one ost ce m arlie s. n ate arne arlie rfe s ate Whe m rial le d e r inte re with m rial le d late thee ct of thee r m rial on thelate arne r, ffe arlie ate r m rial is calle proactiveinte re (PI ) ate d rfe nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 464 Re asefromPI (Wicke 1964) le ns, e cts ce d On first thre trials, all subje re ive consonant trigram s. cts ce d r On trial 4, half thesubje re ive anothe consonant trigramand half thesubje re ive a cts ce d num r trigram be . be Noticethat a uniquecueis availablefor thenum r trigram . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 465 Re sults of Wicke (1964) ns 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 466 Isolating Re val C s (Gardine C trie ue r, raik, & Birtwhistle 1972) , ning and know thenam s of e TheEnglish lovegarde lots of flowe rs. ubje ard r s S cts he flowe trigram y re rs y On trials 1-3 the we wild flowe and on trial 4 the we cultivate flowe re d rs cts re n Half thesubje on trial 4 we give thecue "cultivate d." 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 467 Re sults of Gardine e al. (1972) r, t When category was switched from wild flowers (dandelion, buttercup, bluebell) to cultivated flowers (carnation, rose, tulip) no one noticed. However, a retrieval cue caused release from PI 80 70 60 50 40 30 3rd Trial 2nd Trial 4th Trial 1st Trial 20 No cue Cue 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 468 Re call r Distracte Task rvie Ove w ne cognition Ge ration & Re ne Ge ration cognition Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 469 TheRoleof Ge ration in Re ne call ve rson m call. Target: Whate r a pe is atte pting to re ve rson m call. Distracter: Whate r a pe is not atte pting to re late d e ory Cue: Anything re d to or associate in m m with a targe t. gy d call Thegenerate and recognize strate is use to re ite s. C s areuse to ge ratetrace that aree r m ue d ne s ithe re cognize as targe or re cte as distracte d ts je d rs. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 470 Re call cues Generate Item(s) in Memory Recognize Comparision Judgment Got it 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition Nope done 471 TheRoleof PI in Ge ration ne t d I f a cuefor thetarge is also associate with a re ntly pre nte or ge rate distracte the it will ce se d ne d r n re ne thedistracte rathe than thetarge -ge rate r r t. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 472 Re call r Distracte Paradigm rvie Ove w ne Ge ration ate s C gory I nstance -TonguePhe e nom non Tip-of-the onte tate pe nt m C xt & S De nde Me ory rarchical Organization Hie cognition Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 473 Ge rateAnim Nam s ne al e luste causee ach C ring occurs be cuege rate som sm ne s e all num r of targe which be ts com prisethecluste r. d Each cuecan beuse onceand it take m and m tim to s ore ore e find ne cue S there w s. o call function is ne gative ly acce rate (theslopeof the le d linede ase ove tim ). cre s r e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 474 Ge rateAnim Nam s ne al e luste causee ach C ring occurs be cuege rate som sm ne s e all num r of targe which be ts com prisethecluste r. d Each cuecan beuse onceand it take m and m tim to s ore ore e find ne cue (A. Brown, w s 1968). S there function o call is ne gative acce rate ly le d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 475 Finding UniqueC s ue s r s ne w I t take longe to find cue that ge ratene instance be s causeif a cueis associate with both an d alre ge rate instanceand an un-ge rate ady ne d ne d instance as m instance are (e stripe tige , any s , .g., s: r, ze it will m re re ne thealre ge rate bra) e ly -ge rate ady ne d instancerathe than thene instance r w . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 476 He , them instance ge rate them nce ore s ne d, ore difficult to find uniquecue for ne instance s w s J. Brown (1968). s n s ake r Having 25 of 50 state give as cue m s it harde to re theothe 25. call r lam cka S e (1968). e e be n s ake r Having som list m m rs give as cue m s it harde to re e be theothe list m m rs. mm r r e be ffe rcom ne condary Thee ct is ove eby ge rating se cue (an idiosyncratic e avor). s nde 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 477 Hype ne rm sia re m ay calle Diffe nt ite s m bere d froman unorganize list on d diffe nt occasions be re cause diffe nt cue areavailableon re s e occasion. ach ve call m I f se ral re atte pts are m , hype ne m occur. ade rm sia ay 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 478 Tip-of-the -tonguePhe e nom non mm r t xce You can re e be things about thetarge e pt the crite fe rion ature(such as thenam ), and you fe l that e e you know thecrite fe rion ature . om n twork re se pre nting thetarge t S eof thelogoge ne is activate but not thepart that contains the d, fe ature you'rese king. s e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 479 C I nhibition ue Not e rything re d to thetarge he to ge rateit. I f a cueis ve late t lps ne m strongly associate to distracte than thetarge it will ore d rs t inhibit ge ration of thetarge ne t. What is theword m aning e rapidly taking m e at any sm bite all s? C ram Goggle Targe t 05/13/09 inhibits facitilate s gobble I ntroduction to C ognition 480 C xt De nde Me ory onte pe nt m ople call Pe areableto re m ite s of a list in the ore m sam e e nvironm nt in which e thelist was le d. But arne e nvironm ntal conte has e xt no e ct on re ffe cognition. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 481 S De nde Me ory tate pe nt m im ake ffe d n call S ilar, but we r, e cts areobtaine whe re of a list le d whileintoxicate is com d for arne d pare sobe ve intoxicate subje r rsus d cts. xiste ilar ffe m s Thee nceof a sim e ct for e otional state is possiblebut re ains unprove m n. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 482 Hie rarchical S m e antic Organization rarchical organization is critical for re (through cue call Hie ge ration). ne call te ine e ory d. What were is de rm d by how our m m is organize torie rsus d gorie S s ve unorganize cate s call te ine scriptions (i. e ., Re is also de rm d by structural de rule for constructing re se s) pre ntations of m ssage and e s targe ts. tory m s S gram ars for storie scriptions of coins and bills Visual structural de 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 483 Re call Distracte Paradigm r Ove w rvie Ge ration ne Re cognition AN IN- CLAS EXERCIS S E 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 484 Falsem m s in list re e orie call d Factors associate with falsealarm trong associations with targe ts S r ore ly ne d. Distracte is m like to bege rate r-all call Low ove re rate r ore ly iliar ts. Distracte is m like to beas fam as targe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 485 TheRoleof I nfe ncein Re re cognition e nce rification S nte Ve quirre areanim and anim havehe ls als als arts. The foresquirre re ls S havehe arts. quirre arenot fish. Only fish havegills. The foresquirre do ls re ls S not havegills. tory call S Re le lle arol Errors in He n Ke r vs. C Harris story oin C Drawing call ne scription rathe than spe r cific Re follows ge ral structural de de tails 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 486 FailureIn Re call ne Failureof Ge ration t ne d. Targe is not ge rate r ne d. Distracte is ge rate cognition Failureof Re t cognize d. Targe is not re r cognize d. Distracte is re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 487 C onstructiveMe ory m rarchical organization is critical for re call. What Hie were is de rm d by how our m m is call te ine e ory organize d. cognition task, it m not bepossibleto ay Just as in a re pe ctly discrim rfe inateam sim targe and ong ilar ts distracte He , it is possibleto false re ite s rs. nce ly call m that we ne r pre nte re ve se d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 488 Eye witness identification and testimony 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 489 Whe doe re n s cognition re ally m r? atte cognition of patte in vigilanceand diagnostic rns Re situations r bings...a lowe d crite for re rion Afte London subway bom "te rrorist de ction" re d in a fatal falsealarm te sulte cognition of pe trators of crim s rpe e Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 490 How m kinds of re ay cognition re sponse arethe ? s re ntification, which involve activation of se antic s m I de inform ation, a nam , data e iliarity judgm nt e Fam ce e Re ncy judgm nt que e Fre ncy judgm nt e s m Episodic judgm nt, involve activation of te poral and e nt re se ve pre ntations ctivere sponse(I'mafraid of this pe rson!) Affe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 491 How doe S re to e s DT late ye witne ide ss ntification? sse ust re twe n Witne s m beableto diffe ntiatebe e TYPESof re cognition judgm nts e s ust ry grity of Falsealarmrate m beve low for theinte thecrim justicesyste inal m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 492 How accurate C witne s ly AN sse diffe ntiatebe e type of re twe n s re cognition judgm nts? e ry... Not ve ffe r turgill (1977) Brown, De nbache & S olle nts ore cognizing face than situations s C gestude m accurateat re of e ncounte r s Photos in two room cognition ~2.5, for re <.5 call, d' for accuracy of re rim rsus ople e ugshots, line both ups, "C inals" ve pe only se n in m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 493 Malpass & De (1981) vine rpe d cture knocke ove e , d r quipm nt e Pe trator disrupte le sse -up Witne s saw line with 5 individuals rpe se -ups Thepe trator was pre nt in half theline re d d I nstructions we biase or unbiase 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 494 Biased Instructions Webe vethat thepe ... is pre nt in theline lie rson se up. Look care fully at e of thefiveindividuals in the ach line Which of the is thepe you saw...? up. se rson C thenum r of his position in theline be ircle be up low. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 495 Unbiased Instructions Thepe rson... m beoneof thefiveindividuals in ay theline It is also possiblethat heis not in the up. line Look care up. fully at e of thefiveindividuals ach in theline If thepe up. rson...is not in theline up, circle0. If thepe is pre nt in theline circle rson se up, thenum r of his position. be 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 496 Line with Pe trator Pre nt ups rpe se and Abse unde Biase and nt r d Pe trator Unbiase I nstructions rpe Pre nt d se Abse nt I nstructions Pe trator rpe Othe line m m r r up e be Biase d Unbiase d Biase d Unbiase d 75% 25% Falsealarm 83% 0 17% m iss I ntroduction to C ognition 497 78% Falsealarm 33% Falsealarm No choice 0 m iss 22% 67% 05/13/09 up le se nce rpe I n a line se ction, pre nceor abse of pe trator is m significant factor de rm ost te ining accuracy r s n rp nt Highe falsealarm whe pe abse What affe accuracy of cts ide ntification? lothing and location in photographs also affe re ct cognition C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 498 What other procedures affect accuracy of S ct Pre nt (Photo line uspe serecognition? -up) lls que se ug Lindsay & We (1985) found that se ntial pre ntation of m shots re d in fe r falsealarm and no diffe ncein hits whe sulte we s re n com d with sim pare ultane pre ntation. S ilar re ous se im sults in 15 othe studie r s. uspe No Known S ct te r ultane pre ntation ous se S wart & McAlliste (2001) found that sim of page of m shots re d in fe r falsealarm and no s ug sulte we s diffe ncein hits whe com d with se ntial pre ntation. re n pare que se 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 499 Summary of recognition Re cognition take tim ....and re s e cognition ability de lops ve ove tim . r e Re cognition de nds on original e pe ncoding, tim available e , conte xt. Re cognition re sponse includeide s ntification, cate gorization, fam iliarity, re ncy, affe ce ctivere sponse s. Re cognition re sponse aresubje to bias. s ct 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 500 How is information recalled? cues Generate Ite (s) in Me ory m m Compare Recognize Got it done 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 501 Nope How is information recalled? What is the airspeed velocity of an unladen swallow? Generate Europe or African swallow? an Don't know that 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 502 How is information recalled? What is the Hippocampus? Generate Zoo in Florida, Me ory, te poral lobe HM, m m , de clarativem m fe fornix, four Fs, thirst e ory, ar, Compare Recognize done 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 503 Nope Got it How do we recall information? rarchical organization is critical for re (through cue call Hie ge ration). ne call te ine e ory d. What were is de rm d by how our m m is organize torie rsus d gorie S s ve unorganize cate s call te ine scriptions (i. e ., Re is also de rm d by structural de rule for constructing re se s) pre ntations of m ssage and e s targe ts. tory m s S gram ars for storie scriptions of coins and bills Visual structural de 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 504 What factors are associated with false recall in experiments? d s Factors associate with falsealarm trong associations with targe ts S r ore ly ne d. Distracte is m like to bege rate n re r-all call Whe the is a low ove re rate r ore ly iliar ts. Distracte is m like to beas fam as targe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 505 What kinds of errors occur in recall? ne Failureof Ge ration t ne d. Targe is not ge rate r ne d. Distracte is ge rate cognition Failureof Re t cognize d. Targe is not re r cognize d. Distracte is re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 506 Constructive Memory rarchical organization is critical for re call. What Hie were is de rm d by how our m m is call te ine e ory organize d. cognition task, it m not bepossibleto ay Just as in a re pe ctly discrim rfe inateam sim targe and ong ilar ts distracte He , it is possibleto false re ite s rs. nce ly call m that we ne r pre nte re ve se d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 507 What factors affect false recall of events and persons? Atte ntion Brie e f xposure S ss tre Elapse tim d e S re te otype s Post-e nt inform ve ation Post-e nt que ve stioning, social de sirability, conform ity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 508 How does attention affect recall? tails that arenot atte d to m not bee nde ay ncode d De tails that are"thre le at-re vant" draw atte ntion De away fromothe de r tails 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 509 What is the impact of brief exposure to events or people? ss nde Le is atte d to nt constructions arelike to includem ly ore Eve re (norm confabulation or "filling in" al) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 510 ...and the impact of stress? Varie with thede eof pe s gre rsonal thre at I nte racts with atte ntion S hort-te incre s in adre rm ase nalineim provem m e ory C hronic e vation of cortisol inte re with m m le rfe s e ory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 511 ...and the impact of elapsed time? m s ake Me orie we n d r calle Moreis "fille in" rathe than re d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 512 How do stereotypes affect recall? te otypeconsiste be nt haviors arem like to be ore ly S re re d/fille in calle d m m ring am tone Re e be S S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 513 What is the impact of post-event information and integrated in semantic memory and questioning? ation is I nform "whe inform n" ation is le d is lost arne pe d stioning, re ate e pe d xposureto m shots ug Re ate que is particularly like to distort re and re ly call cognition m m ring am tone Loftus, Re e be S S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 514 How does "real data" compare with S ee witne te ony is m m data? omexperimentaloreaccuratethan ye ss stim uch e rim ntal data would pre xpe e dict utshall Yuille& C an John De t....them ajority of convictions ove rturne on the d And ye basis of DNA e ncehavebe n obtaine base on vide e d d e witne te ony ye ss stim 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 515 How is confidence related to accuracy? Not at all But confide in incorre judgm nts is highly nce ct e corre d with confide in corre judgm nts late nce ct e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 516 Episodic Me ory m Episodic Hie rarchy: e pisode e nt se nce s: ve que s ve ation Post-e nt inform e ory Autobiographical m m Re = Re call construction onfide nce Accuracy C Re ge rally high, thre functions call ne e C hildhood am sia be ~ age4 ne low Re inisce bum 15 to 30 lots of firsts m nce p Re ncy e ct frompre nt back to ~30 the is a de ce ffe se re clinein e nts re d with m re nt ve calle ore ce e nts m like to bere d. ve ore ly calle Re trogradeam sia ne 05/13/09 Psychoge am sia claim ofte involvefraud, inte to de ive nic ne s n nt ce Organic re trogradeam sia: bilate dam to m dial te poral corte ne ral age e m x I ntroduction to C ognition 517 Episodic Me ory - De m finition e ory s Episodic Memory is m m for storie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 518 Autobiographical Me ory m ve s lf. Lifee nts arestorie about yourse y d e ory e anne That is, the arestructure in m m in thesam m r as all storie s. m ve d Me ory for e nts in your own lifearealso calle autobiographical memory. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 519 Autobiographical Me ory m m Updating Me ory onfide in Eve Me ory nce nt m Accuracy and C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 520 What day is it today? What day was it ye rday? ste What day will it betom orrow? Aske at Noon d 3 2.5 Seconds 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Days 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 521 Today Yesterday Tomorrow Fri Sat Noon ve Morning rsus 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Today Yesterday Tomorrow Morning 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Today Yesterday Tomorrow Noon 05/13/09 0 I ntroduction to C ognition Sun Mon Tues 522 Wed Thurs Fri Sat Noon ve Morning ve Eve rsus rsus ning 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Today Yesterday Tomorrow 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Today Yesterday Tomorrow Noon 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Morning Today Yesterday Tomorrow 05/13/09 Evening I ntroduction to C ognition 523 Orie nting to Tim and Place e ue te ine rson's curre plans and nt C s arede rm d by a pe e ctations xpe ue ing d. C s arecontinually be update e nte e This ke ps us orie d to tim and place 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 524 Episodic Me ory m m Updating Me ory onfide in Eve Me ory nce nt m Accuracy and C Roleof Post-Eve I nform nt ation Effe of inte ct ntions on e nt m m ve e ory Effe of que ct stioning on confide and accuracy nce Re lationship be e accuracy and confide in e nt m m twe n nce ve e ory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 525 Me ory for Facts ve Me ory for Eve m rsus m nts Task Read a story and recall it some time later Memory Group asked to recall story Interactive Group asked to think about and react to story After they have read the story subjects told either consistent (+), inconsistent (-), or no (0) information with respect to the story Number of Subjects Producing Recall Errors (Out of 20) 2 Days Group 0+Memory 0 1 0 Interactive 0 0 4 05/13/09 3 weeks 0+101 2 2 13 I ntroduction to C ognition 6 weeks 0+112 3 3 12 526 S Ending-Marrie C m nt ad d om e ad S Ending d. he d othe Margiewas horrifie S had always wante to bea m r and had he he se on having m childre The argue bitte r art t any n. y d rly ove what had be ea ve se r com ry rious proble for the . A long m m discussion of thestatus of the re ir lationship followe d. call Re y parate but re d afte discussing them r that the d alize r atte ir The se lovem re m . atte d ore d cide y e prom : ise Thediscusse it and de d the could agre on a com adoption. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 527 Happy Ending-Not Marrie C m nt d om e Happy Ending late causeshewante to havea care r shehad d e Margiewas e d. Be also fe that shedidn't want to havechildre The re d in the lt n. y joice dissolution of what would havebe n a ve se e ry rious proble for m the . A long discussion of thestatus of the re m ir lationship followe d. call Re re r's nts. The was a hasslewith oneor theothe pare y e n. The disagre d about having childre 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 528 C onclusion mm r ly r I t is possibleto re e be a story accurate ove a long re ntion inte te rval. ve al e ory ct Howe r, norm autobiographical m m is subje to constant re vision. m s cific pisode m changeove tim as the s ay r e Me orie of spe e re of post-e nt inform sult ve ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 529 I nte ntions As Re C s call ue Marcia Johnson: ore twe n: Found that it is m difficult to distinguish be e aying som thing vs. thinking about saying it. e S Than: aying som thing vs. he e aring it. S r s This and othe studie by Johnson support the im portant roleof inte ntions and action in organizing m m e ory. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 530 TheEffe of Post-Eve Que ct nt stioning on C onfide and Accuracy nce C hildre aree cially susce n spe ptibleto post-e nt inform ve ation; there sponseto a re ate ye pe d s/no que stion will change . Eve adult e -witne te ony m beinflue d by post-e nt inform n ye ss stim ay nce ve ation S ssivere atte pts unde hypnosis incre s confide m m than ucce call m r ase nce uch ore accuracy 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 531 Me orie Dispute Be e Twins (S e m s d twe n he n, Ke p, & Rubin, 2001) m Ageat Te st 21 21 21 Ageat Eve nt 11 14 12 C Word ue Fair Re staurant Boat De scription of Me ory m Who cam in 12th in inte e rnational cross country race Who we for lunch with the m nt ir um and had a wormin he m al r e Who was in boat with fathe whe r n the saw a tige shark y r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 532 Long-te Autobiographical Re ntion rm te e antic Me ory m Sm ople Pe Facts m Episodic Me ory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 533 Ve Long Te Re ntion of Pe ry rm te rsonal I nform ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 534 Ve Long-Te Re ntion of Acade ic I nform ry rm te m ation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 535 Long-te Re ntion rm te e antic Me ory m Sm m Episodic Me ory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 536 C onstructing Episodic Autobiographical Function e e ory. Usecueword m thod to probem m cord ach ve d. Re theageat which e e nt occurre 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 537 Autobiographical Re ntion te 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 61-70 51-60 41-50 31-40 21-30 11-20 1-10 Age of Subjects at Time of Event 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 538 Number of Memories Per Decade Autobiographical Me ory m A re ntion function for old m m s has thre m te e orie e ain fe ature s: ce r e orie ss ly calle Re ncy: Olde m m s arele like to bere d than m re nt one ore ce s m nce p A re inisce bum consisting of a surprisingly large num r of m m s com fromage 10-30, particularly be e orie ing s be e 15 and 25 twe n hildhood am sia for thefirst fiveye of life ne ars C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 539 Explanation of Autobiographical Function ce ore ce ve calle s Re ncy m re nt e nts arere d; cue arelost or le acce ss ssiblefor olde m m s r e orie m nce p ct lty m Re inisce bum Effe of nove and e otion on accuracy and confide nce ne pisodic Early childhood am sia Failureto construct e narrative dueto insufficie skill s nt 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 540 TheEffe of Nove and Em ct lty otion on Re ntion te Nove e nts attract m re arsals, which re l ve ore he sults in longe re ntion r te storff Effe ct Von Re acy ct Prim Effe Em otional e nts arespe ve cially e ncode so that the aredifficult to forge d y t ahill & McGaugh C 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 541 Vivid LifeEve nts A total of 93%of vivid lifem m s aree r uniquee nts or first-tim e rie s e orie ithe ve e xpe nce nce l m xpe nce He nove and e otional e rie s Whe alum we aske to re 4 m m s fromthe first ye of colle m than 20 n ni re d call e orie ir ar ge ore ye pre ars viously, 41%of them m s cam fromS pte be e orie e e m r 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 542 Flashbulb Me orie m s Vivid m m s for une cte e otional e nts, e g., Ke dy e orie xpe d m ve . nne assassination; C nge e halle r xplosion; 9/11. De spitethevividne of such ss m m s the m behighly inaccurate S confide is not highly e orie y ay . o nce corre d with accuracy late 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 543 Flashbulb Me orie S m s tudie s isse Ne r and Harsch (1992): halle r xplosion. C nge e e orie d r ars. 40%of them m s change afte 2.5 ye chm quire(2000): S olck, Buffalo, and S im rdict. O.J. S pson ve e orie d r ars. 42%of m m s distorte afte 2.5 ye d ports we re e be d with high de eof re m m re gre 61%of distorte re confide . nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 544 Post Traum S ss Disorde atic tre r Vivid m m s of une cte tragic, he highly e otional e nts m disrupt e orie xpe d, nce m ve ay atte ntion to curre e nts. Me orie can not bee nt ve m s asily forgotte or re ove from n m d consciousne ss Howe r, no e ncethat m m s arem accurate re e be d than othe ve vide e orie ore ly m m re r mm s e orie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 545 Explanation of Autobiographical Function ce we s Re ncy fe r cue m nce p ore Re inisce bum m firsts ne Early childhood am sia pisodic narrative dueto insufficie skill s nt Failureto construct e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 546 Early C hildhood Am sia ne m r, llo, tt Pille e Picare and Prue (1994): m m rge vacuation. Me ory for an e e ncy school e 3 yr-olds vs. 4 yr-olds. e r ve Two we ks afte thee nt: am ve e ory ve S ele l of m m for e nt. e n ars r, d-choicere cognition te st: S ve ye late force cognition. 3 yr-olds (now 10): No re ct. 4 yr-olds (now 11): 86%corre 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 547 Episodic Me ory m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 548 Re liability of Me ory m e orie ore ars ay All autobiographical m m s m than two ye old m contain inaccurateinform ation. otional e nts areunlike to beforgotte BUT, the are ve ly n. y Em susce ptibleto post-e nt inform ve ation. m s arly ay ntire sult ve Me orie of e childhood m bee ly there of post e nt inform ation. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 549 Te chnique for re ring m m s s cove e orie Re ate inte pe d rrogation Exte d psychoanalysis nde Re ssion the gre rapy Hypnosis S odiumam ytal 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 550 Re re Me orie areofte of cove d m s n hildhood se xual abuse . C s. Past live ns. Abduction by alie 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 551 "Re re m m s aresuspe be cove d" e orie ct cause Many cannot betrue aginary injurie (no scar) s Im aginary e nts ve Im rs, ls, tc. Murde tunne e ve Fantastic e nts n ncounte past live rs, s Flying, satanic visits, alie e ry e lie d But areve de ply be ve by theindividual 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 552 C onclusion xte cove d Onecannot know thee nt to which a re re m m is trueor false(a confabulation). e ory nce vide , r But .... In theabse of physical e nce othe confirm e nce claim of re re m m ing vide , s cove d e ory should betre d with care ske ate ful pticism 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 553 Re trogradeAm sia ne e ory ve ation that occurre d Loss of m m for e nts and inform be theonse of them m disorde fore t e ory r. d tting C d by pe ause rsonal crisis. I ndividual Motivate Forge orie d to tim and placebut not ide nte e ntity. Eithe fails to re r call ide ntity or confabulate falseide s ntity. trogradeAm sia C d by brain injury. I ndividual ne ause Organic Re not orie d to tim and place nte e . 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 554 Psychoge Am sia nic ne d tting: Motivate Forge Also known as fugue state. ause rsonal crisis. C d by pe nte e ntity. I ndividual orie d to tim and placebut not ide r call ntity or confabulate falseide s ntity. Eithe fails to re ide lm nse tt, tanhope Thecaseof A.T. (Kope an, Christe n, Puffe and S 1994). nce st e ory ntity was not lost. Evide to sugge that m m for ide ry nds d st Ve rareand te to beassociate with dishone activity. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 555 Organic Re trogradeAm sia ne ause C d by brain injury. nte e . I ndividual not orie d to tim and place s m m r ntity. I ndividual doe re e be ide 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 556 C s of Re ause trogradeAm sia ne pre De ssion. d T. May becure by drug or EC hock/traum a S m May also bete porary. turn of m m is disorganize e ory d. Re nce pisodic m m s m bestore in se ncein e orie ay d que Evide that e adjace locations in thebrain. nt ase Dise . ase ffe ssive Dise e cts arechronic or progre . trogradeam sia also a com nt of Korsakoff's syndrom , ne pone e Re Huntington's dise , and Alzhe e dise . ase im r's ase 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 557 Korsakoff's S yndrom e nts Korsakoff patie are com d with norm pare al controls on a life e tim re val te scale to trie st d givea flat function. ore ce Them re nt the m m theless like it e ory ly is to bere ve trie d. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 558 Re trogradeAm sia As Re val Failure ne trie rs Butte (1984): ase nt. C of P.Z., Korsakoff patie ars fore t r. Wroteautobiography 3 ye be onse of disorde call ce e orie re scribe in d Failureto re re nt m m s that we de autobiography shows thefailureto bea re of re val rathe sult trie r than insufficie le nt arning (e ncoding). 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 559 Frontal LobeDam age age ay d Frontal lobedam m beassociate with: onfabulation. C m m ring lie ve Re e be (and be ving) falsee nts. rous havior. Dange be nt lusions. Patie can act on thebasis of de gre pairm nt is proportional to theam e ount of De eof im frontal lobedam . age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 560 Re asoning Pe ive sim rce d ilarity be e curre e rie and pre twe n nt xpe nce vious e rie is thebasis of re xpe nce asoning Kahne an & Tve theonly psychologists to win Nobe Prize (in Econom m rsky l s ics) Analogical re asoning & I nductivere asoning De ductivere asoning Intuitivede cision m aking 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 561 S ntific Re cie asoning S ntists usee cie xplicit analogie to unde s rstand & e xplain phe e nom na le le e als Darwin: natural se ction as analogous to se ctivebre ding of plants & anim in agriculture ple ory tary otion by drawing analogie be e gravity and light s twe n Ke r: the of gravity in plane m act ove distance but with de asing e cts r , cre ffe uroscie ntists unde rstand brain through analogie to digital com rs s pute Ne Dunbar (1999, 2001) we kly lab m e e e tings in biology labs, constant useof analogie to inte t s rpre findings and ge ratene hypothe s ne w se e ting, 2 14 analogie use m to biological phe e but m outside s d, ost nom na, any Typical 1-hour m e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 562 S ntific Re cie asoning S ntists usee cie xplicit analogie to unde s rstand & e xplain phe e nom na What do non-scie ntists do? Ge r & Ge r (1983) te d HS& colle stude with no physics course on ntne ntne ste ge nts s unde rstanding of e ctrical circuits le om d s r oving through pipe s S euse analogie to wate m rie ps d se ase r ssure& he d the lpe m Thought of batte s as likepum or raise re rvoirs, which incre wate pre answe batte que r ry stions rs, ople oving on roads and tunne ls, Othe crowds of pe or cars m ry stions, but did we on que ll stions about re sistors (gate or turnstile s s) did poorly on batte que om s st rie , r s st S eanalogie be for thinking about batte s and voltage othe analogie be for thinking about re sistors and am rage pe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 563 Analogy Proble s m PLANE is to AI R as BOAT is 1. 2. 3. 4. S arine ubm Wate r Oxyge n Pilot S OON is to NEVER as NEAR is 1. 2. 3. 4. C lose Far away Nowhe re S ldom e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 564 I nductiveRe asoning Induction: theatte pt to infe a ne principleor proposition fromobse m r w rvations or facts that se as clue rve s Hypothe te sis sting Use all thetim to m se of e rie or pre like e rie d e ake nse xpe nce dict ly xpe nce Inductivere asoning is founde on pe ive analogie or othe sim d rce d s r ilaritie s Biase le to m s ad istake s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 565 Biase in InductiveRe s asoning Availability Bias: rely too strongly on information readily available ove stim risk of publicize thre unde stim com on risks re ate d ats, re ate m C onfirm ation Bias: peoplelook for evidenceto confirmrather than disconfirmtheir hypothe s se Wason (1960) gam to discove se ncing rule e r que Expe e r produce a se nceconsiste with rule rim nte s que nt Participant produce a se nceand e rim nte says "Ye or "No" s que xpe e r s" Many participants ne r produce counte xam s to te the hypothe about therule ve d r-e ple st ir sis S & S rm kov he an(1986) "inte w" anothe to discove the pe rvie r r ir rsonality, asse ssing hypothe sis of introve rsion or e xtrave rsion Aske le d ading, confirm que ing stions 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 566 Biase in InductiveRe s asoning Pre dictableworld bias: doe e sn't xist. so strongly incline to se orde that weanticipateit whe it d e r re Gam bling: in gam s of purechancepe do not m ize the atte pt to probability m e ople axim , y m atch vary gue s or be ove trials sse ts r Rats whe re re warde m for onebar pre than anothe quickly le to m ize d ore ss r, arn axim Pre dictableworld bias is a te ncy to e nde ngagein inductivere asoning e n whe it is pointle ve re ss 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 567 Biase in InductiveRe s asoning Re se pre ntative ss: ne so strongly incline to se sim d e ilarity and patte that wem rns ay ignorelogic baserateprinciple thenorm , ativeprinciple(joint probability is lowe than r thesingleprobabilitie ie probability of be m = 50% probability of be s , ing ale , ing Re publican = 50% probability of be a m Re , ing ale publican = 50%x 50%= 25% ) C onjunction fallacy Pe rsonality ske of "Linda": philosophy m tch ajor, outspoke bright, politically involve n, d Rank probabilitie that state e we true s m nts re Linda is a bank te r lle Linda is a bank te r and activein thefe inist m m nt lle m ove e 1. 2. 80%of participants said #2 was m probablethan #1 ore 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 568 Biase in InductiveRe s asoning Ge ralization fallacy: ne re lying on re se pre ntative ss m s ge ralization to a large ne ake ne r cate gory m plausiblethan to a sm r cate ore alle gory that it contains "Robins se teuric acid" ge ralize m strongly to "All birds se teuric acid" than cre ne d ore cre to "ostriche se teuric acid." s cre S ilarity judgm nts m beasym e im e ay m tric: Poland is m sim to Russia than Russia to ore ilar Poland 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 569 De ductiveRe asoning De duction: theatte pt to de logically theconse nce that m betrueif spe m rive que s ust cific pre ise areacce d as true m s pte Eve ryonein m fam is ove six fe t tall. y ily r e Is e ryonein m fam ove fivefe t tall? ve y ily r e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 570 De ductiveRe asoning De duction: theatte pt to de logically theconse nce that m betrueif spe pre ise m rive que s ust cific m s areacce d as true pte Series Problem John is talle than He r nry John is shorte than Mary r Mary is shorte than Billy r Is Billy shorte than He r nry? Syllogism All che areviolinists. (m pre ise fs ajor m ) Mary is a che (m pre ise f. inor m ) Is Mary a violinist? Ann is a violinist. I s shea che f? Dan is not a che I s hea violinist? f. Bill is not a violinist. I s hea che f? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 571 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m Johnson-Laird (1985, 2004): Pe without form training and who don't usepe and pape ople al ncil r C onstruct m ntal m ls e ode Must unde rstand thepre ise m s Re se pre ise in e pre nt m s asily acce ssibleform ofte visual , n Manipulatethere se pre ntation Difficulty of proble s is corre d with thenum r of pre ise m late be m s Pe rform anceon syllogism m strongly re d to visuo-spatial ability than ve ability s ore late rbal fMRI shows m right he isphe activity during de ore m re ductivere asoning than le he isphe ft m re activity 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 572 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m 1. 2. Re se thepre ise in working m m pre nt m s e ory Ope on there se rate pre ntation For se s proble s (line orde rie m ar rings) alm anyonecan m corre infe ncefroma transitive ost ake ct re chain. S veis talle than De k. te r re De k is talle than Matt. re r Is S vetalle than Matt? te r ....but.... De k is talle than Matt. re r S veis talle than De k. te r re Is S vetalle than Matt? te r Re quire re arsing and re ring in working m m C s he orde e ory. hildre < 5, cannot re n liably solvere rse ve d pre ise proble s. m s m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 573 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m 1. Re se thepre ise in working m m pre nt m s e ory De duction is a voluntary action: subje to constraints of working m m ct e ory. Factors that influe capacity of working m m influe re nce e ory nce asoning. (chunking & visual im ry) age 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 574 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m Potts (1972, 1974) studie of longe se s six pre ise s r rie m s. S cts le d orde ubje arne rings Madetruefalsejudgm nts about se nce de e nte s scribing pairs of ite s. m Re action tim DECREAS with thedistancebe e theite s. e ED twe n m Pe visually re se d thepre ise and e points can beacce d ve quickly ople pre nte m s, nd sse ry Bill is talle than S r am S is talle than Dave am r Daveis talle than Bob r Bob is talle than Pe r te Bill is talle than Dave r Daveis talle than Pe r te Bill S am Dave Bob Pe te 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 575 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m For we arne conce re ll-le d pts, action tim m asure show a sym e e s bolic-distancee ct ffe Thefarthe apart ite s areon thedim nsion, thefaste a com r m e r parativejudgm nt can bem . e ade Which is anim is large al r? RT Horse ouse -m Horse -goat 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 576 How do wesolvede ductivere asoning proble s? m Positiveinfe nce m re odus pone I f p, the q, p, the foreq ns: n re I f it we raining, theside re walks would bewe t I t is raining, the foretheside re walks arewe t Ne gativeinfe nce m re odus tolle I f p, the q, Not q, the forenot p ns: n re If it we raining, theside re walks would bewe t. Theside walks arenot we the foreit is not raining. t, re C onstructing re se pre ntations of ne gativeinfe nceis m difficult, m like to re in e re ore ore ly sult rror 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 577 Why is m odus tolle difficult? ns Me m ls aree r to construct for positiveasse ntal ode asie rtions, positivepre ise than for ne m s gative asse rtions Wason & Johnson-Laird (1972) se ction task le S cts give four cards with onele r or digit showing ubje n tte A M 6 3 Rule "I f a card has a vowe on oneside the it has an e n num r on theothe : l , n ve be r side ." Task: Nam thecard(s) and only thecard(s) that m beturne ove to e ust d r de rm if theruleis true te ine . A and 3 arethecritical cards, be causethe can falsify therule y . By m odus tolle if "3", the "not vowe ns, n l" 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 578 Why is m odus tolle difficult? ns Three card problem: thre cards: re d, white d, white e d/re /re /white You pick a card, placeit faceup, it is re What is theprobability that your card is there d card? d. d/re Most pe say 50% ople ......corre answe is 67% ct r The are3 ways to show re two of the arethe re d, m card: 2/3 = 67% Three door problem: big prizebe hind onedoor. You pick a door. Anothe door is ope d, r ne doe havethebig prize S sn't . hould you switch? Ye you havea 1/3 chanceof picking big prize Theprobability that oneof thethre door conce s: . e als thebig prizeis 1.0....theprobability that theope d door had it is 0.... 1.0 1/3 = 2/3...you ne should switch. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 579 re d d/re I nte sum ary rim m In re asoning about thefuture pe re on prior e rie and thesim , ople ly xpe nce ilarity of curre nt e rie to prior e rie . xpe nce xpe nce Inductivere asoning is base on sim d ilarity judgm nts and is subje to a num r of biase e ct be s....is a m autom proce than de ore atic ss ductivere asoning Availability bias C onfirm ation bias Pre dictableworld bias Re se pre ntative ss bias ne Ge ralization bias ne De ductivere asoning: a voluntary proce that de nds on working m m capability ss pe e ory Re se pre nting theproble is thecritical ste m p 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 580 Pre re fe nce C ognition m beabout de ay ciding what you want and how to ge it. t Pre re s: knowing what you want, m fe nce aking choice be e alte s twe n rnative s. Pre re s areassum d to bem fe nce e otivate by de d gains and ave d sire rsion to losse s. Prospe the ct ory: pre re s areaffe d by whe r proble s arefram d as gains or losse fe nce cte the m e s. 1. 2. S ctivem ubje agnitude arediffe nt fromarithm tic m s re e agnitude . Value of possibleoutcom s arere se d as gains or losse fromwhat you start s e pre nte s with....theze re re point ro fe nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 581 Pre re fe nce Pre re re rsal: fe nce ve whe a pair of choice is fram d as gains, pe se ct one n s e ople le Whe e sse as losse theothe alte n xpre d s, r rnativeis se cte le d Exam : ple You aregive $1,000: You m choosebe e a) a 50%chanceof an additional $1,000 or b) n ust twe n a 100%chanceof an additional $500 Note e cte valueof a) is $1,500 of b) is $1,500 : xpe d You aregive $2,000. Must choosebe e c) 50%chanceof losing $1000 or d) 100%chance n twe n of losing $500 Note e cte valueof c) is $1,500 and of d) is $1,500. : xpe d Participants se ct b) ove a) and c) ove d)...want suregains and want to avoid sure le r r losse s.....e n whe e cte valueis thesam . ve n xpe d e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 582 Pre re fe nce C points: how did you fram theproble ? PS e m Expe d valueof a gue is 0.5 cte ss (.25 * 2) C rtain valueof "I don't know" is 1.0 e To m izevalue answe whe fe ling of ce axim , r n e rtainty is high, othe rwise"I don't know" 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 583 Pre re s and e otion fe nce m Pre re is probably part of thee otional re fe nce m sponsem diate by theam e d ygdala Be chara, Dam & Dam (2000): whe conne asio asio n ction be e am twe n ygdala and pre frontal corte is se re judgm nt is im x ve d, e paire conse nce of actions not conside d. d, que s re Riskie choice why? r s 1) Inability to de rm be courseof action te ine st 2) No m ave ore rsion to loss Re sults: no accom panying anxie with am ty ygdala dam age anxie continue in thosewith pre ty d frontal dam but no age dam age am ygdala 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 584 S m of Pre re um ary fe nce Pe try to m izegains and m izelosse BUT ople axim inim s, Re se pre ntation of theproble re ains im m m portant AND pe te to ople nd Ove r-valuesm gains and havedisproportionateave all rsion to sm losse all s C rtain sm gains arepre rre to large m spe e all fe d r ore culativegains, but large spe r culativelosse s arepre rre to sm r ce fe d alle rtain losse (pre re re rsal) s fe nce ve Pre re is probably an e otional re fe nce m sponse m diate by am , e d ygdala. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 585 Problem Solving Thenatureof proble solving Ne ll & S on m we im Proble spaceand se m arch Proble solving ope m rators Proble re se m pre ntation S t e cts e ffe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 586 The Nature of Problem Solving m pe frontal corte x Proble solving de nds on pre an m pe d Hum advantagein proble solving de nds on advance de lopm nt of PFCre ve e lativeto othe spe s r cie r ultan, sticks and bananas Kohle & S Goal directedness organized toward a goal Subgoal decomposition task had to be broken into subtasks Operator application operator is an action that transforms the problem state into another problem state 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 587 The Vocabulary of Problem Solving m scribe as se d arching a proble space m Proble solving de Problem space consists of various states of the problem Initial state is the start state Situations on the way to a solution are intermediate states Goal is goal state 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 588 The Vocabulary of Problem Solving Thevarious state a proble solve can ge rate s m r ne /achie de ve fine proble spaceor statespace m Problem solving operators are ways to change one state in the problem space into another Problem space a maze of states; operators are paths for moving among them. C pt of proble solving as se once m arch through a statespace Alle Ne ll & He rt S on; AI as we as cognitive n we rbe im ll scie nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 589 Two important questions 1. What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble m solve r? 1. How doe a proble solve se ct a particular ope s m r le rator whe se ral areavailable n ve ? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 590 First important question What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Theinitial re se pre ntation of theproble de rm s m te ine which known ope rators will be eavailable com (through associativeprim ing) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 591 First important question What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Theinitial re se pre ntation of theproble de rm s which known m te ine ope rators will be eavailable(through associativeprim com ing) Ne ope w rators areacquire through d Analogy itation Im I nstruction ry Discove 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 592 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Theinitial re se pre ntation An in class e rcise xe .... 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 593 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Theinitial re se pre ntation 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 594 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Theinitial re se pre ntation de rm s which ope te ine rators are activate d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 595 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? Im agine Anothe in class e rcise .... r xe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 596 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? I NI TI AL REPRES ENTATI ON 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 597 What de rm s theope te ine rators availableto a proble solve m r? I NI TI AL REPRES ENTATI ON 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 598 Ope rator Acquisition Analogy and I m itation Analogy: e xtract theope rators use to solveoneproble and d m m the onto anothe proble Dunke Glick & ap m r m r/ Holyoak tum proble fe can solve or m w Using story, e xtracting theope rators, m participants ost solvethetum proble or m Analogie chose on thebasis of supe s n rficial sim ilaritie s...m ay not work 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 599 Second important question How doe a proble solve se ct a particular ope s m r le rator whe n se ral areavailable ve ? Thre crite ofte use e ria n d 1. Backup avoidance 2. Diffe ncere re duction re s thediffe nce duce re be e curre stateand goal twe n nt 3. Me ans-e analysis nd 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 600 Wrong re se pre ntation Barriers to problem solving Functional Fixe ss dne S t Effe e cts 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 601 I ncubation e cts ffe I nsight Boosts for problem solving 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 602 Bounde Rationality: d I ntuitivecognitivefunctions: autom and rapid atic C ontrolle cognitivefunctions: de rateand slow d libe Acce ssibility of inform ation and fram of situations ing affe which proce s will beuse ct sse d Attributesubstitution: answe an e que r asy stion that you have be n aske n't e d 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 603 I ntuitivejudgm nt e rm diatebe e pe ption and twe n rce I ntuition is inte e de ratelogical re libe asoning ophisticate e rts m intuitivejudgm nts d xpe ake e S inconsiste with the e rt knowle (Tve & nt ir xpe dge rsky Kahne an, 1971) m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 604 Two S m of Thought yste s S m1 yste 05/13/09 Fast, Autom atic, Effortle Associative ss, Difficult to control or m odify C de with conce can bee d by language an al pts, voke Ge rate impressions of attribute ne s s S r, S rial, Effortful lowe e De rate controlle libe ly d Fle , May berule xible -gove d rne Monitors thought and action Monitors S m1 (rathe le ntly) yste r nie I ntroduction to C ognition 605 S m2 yste Fre rick's Bat & Ball Proble de m "A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. Thebat costs $1.00 m than theball. ore How m doe theball cost?" uch s Alm e ryonesays 10 ce ost ve nts....or at le THI NKS ast 10 ce first.... nts Why? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 606 Fre rick's Bat & Ball Proble de m Many/m pe don't think quantitative ost ople ly....S m yste 2m onitors loose ly...acce a plausiblejudgm nt pts e that quickly com s to m e ind $1.10 bre e aks asily into $1.00 + 10 I t is plausible(se m about right) e s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 607 Bat quantitatively....System2 monitorsloosely...acceptsa & Ball Proble m Many/m pe don't think ost ople plausiblejudgm nt that quickly com s to m e e ind How do people get to the right answer? Check the second condition: The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. $1.00 10 $1.00, so its got to be <10 OR Immediately set up the two equations (x + y = $1.10) (x y = 1.00 ), 2y=0.10, y=.05 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 608 Acce ssibility influe s intuitive nce judgm nt e Acce ssibility: Exam towe of blocks ple r ight ssible He is acce e ssible Volum is acce a re -arrange is NOT acce d ssible m be , ust Are cove d if re de rate e ate or de rm d libe ly stim d te ine 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 609 Acce ssibility I m ssion of pre he is ight acce ssiblefor A and C but not B. , I m ssion of pre are is acce a ssible for B, but he ight is not A 05/13/09 B I ntroduction to C ognition C 610 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 611 S easse e areautom om ssm nts atic What color we thedisks? re How m big disks we the ? any re re How m diffe nt size of disks we the ? any re s re re Which sizewas m num rous? ost e Which sizewas close to an "ave "? st rage What aretheratios of thediam te e rs? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 612 We form impressions without choosing to The role of system 2 would be to pick a parameter and scale....which are less accessible. Area? Radius? Diameter? Inches? Centimeters? Feet? Accessibility is a dimension....a continuum At one end, operations that are completely automatic, rapid, like perception..... At the other end, effortful operations, like counting, calculation of to Cognition area 05/13/09 I ntroduction 613 What de rm s acce te ine ssibility? Perceptual Salience or actual prope s of theobje of rtie ct judgm nt e A 05/13/09 B S ncecan beove eby deliberate attention alie rcom Pay attention to the black letters I ntroduction to C ognition 614 RCULTIGCEKRES R!S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 615 atte ntion haveparalle in ls proce ssing of conce and pts propositions...in de rm te ining Prim form acoustic, se antic ing , m acce ssibility Associativeactivation S re te otypeprim m ntion of a fam social cate ing e iliar gory incre s ase acce ssiblity of traits r sholds Lowe thre r action tim s e Faste re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 616 C xt affe acce onte cts ssibility What is them iddle characte r? Without se ing thetwo e se closetoge r, we ts the would not beawareof theam biguity. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 617 Natural asse e are ssm nts routine & autom ly atically re re by pe ptual syste s giste d rce m Size, Distance, Color, Loudness 1 or S m yste Similarity Familiarity Surprisingness Causality Affective valence (like it / dislike it approach/avoid) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 618 Am biguity is NOT a natural asse e ssm nt C pe prope om ting nsitie areofte pe ive s n rce d C ounte rfactual alte rnative to what happe d arealso s ne pe ive rce d Rutge could havewon against X rs Rutge almost regained control of thegam rs e against X Competing interpretations of reality suppress each other... e m unce piste ic rtainty about what actually happe d...is not a natural asse e ne ssm nt 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 619 Doubt is a property of Expe nce de System 2 r pre rie d cision m rs working unde ssure ake rare choosebe e alte ly twe n rnative s Only oneoption com s to m e ind Firecaptains Fighte pilots r Grand m r che playe aste ss rs Em rge roomphysicians e ncy I ntroduction to C ognition 620 05/13/09 How rational are we? Obse rvations that som attribute of a situation are e s acce ssiblein onepre ntation of a situation and not se anothe (re e be theblocks) challe the r mm r nge rational-age m l of de nt ode cision m aking. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 621 Framing effects: Extensionality and invariancerencesarenot affected by are violated Theassum ption that pre fe variations of irre vant fe le ature of outcom s....is s e calle invarianceor e nsionality d xte I f theframing of a proble affe pre re , choice m cts fe nce is not rational. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 622 How bad is pain? ak nd Pe / e rule xpe nce sn't te ine Total duration of painful e rie doe de rm subje ctivepain gate nding le l is substitute for ve d Aggre of worst pain and e an aggre of thewholee rie gate xpe nce inute can beworsethan 60 m s inute s 10 m ple Exam of attribute substitution which (in this case) is a scope violation, or violation of extensionality 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 623 Fram e cts: TheAsian Dise ing ffe ase Proble ase, expected to kill 600 m Pre paring for outbre of an Asian dise ak pe . Two alte ople rnativeapproache s ProgramA: 200 pe save ople d ProgramB: 1/3 probability that 600 pe will besave and ople d 2/3s probability that no pe will besave ople d. Which programwould you favor? The majority choose Program A, risk aversion 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 624 Pre paring for outbre of an Asian dise , e cte to kill 600 pe . Two alte ak ase xpe d ople rnativeapproache s ProgramA: 200 pe save ople d ProgramB: 1/3 probability that 600 pe will besave and 2/3s probability that no pe will besave ople d ople d. Fram e cts: TheAsian Dise ing ffe ase Proble m S cond ve e rsion ProgramA: 400 pe will die ople ProgramB: 1/3 probability that no onewill dieand 2/3s probability that 600 will die The majority choose program B, risk-seeking 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 625 Fram e cts: TheAsian Dise ing ffe ase Proble can comparesituations m Re sponde whe dire d to do so, nts, n cte and re alizethe areide y ntical How to e xplain? Accessibility of the affective (emotional) response Certain life for 200 is more attractive than certain death for 400 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 626 Fram e cts: individual diffe nce ing ffe re s In within-subjects designs, more thoughtful people show more consistency than less thoughtful people ActiveS m2 m s pe m like to noticethe yste ake ople ore ly re lationship be e thetwo ve twe n rsions and e nsure consiste of re ncy sponse s. I n theabse of these nce cond ve rsion (be e subje de twe n ct signs), the is no cuefor consiste and e n thoughtful pe re ncy, ve ople areproneto thefram e ct. ing ffe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 627 How lazy are we? Passive processing of the formulation of a problem or presentation of a stimulus is the norm Pe don't spontane ople ously com putetheare that could becove d by a a re towe of blocks, or thetowe that could bebuilt froman array of r r blocks. Pe don't spontane ople ously re ulatede form cision proble s. m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 628 spontaneously transform statements and faces into representations that are generalizablent(canonical a Westrip out thewords and re se them aning or "gist" of pre e state e or m rial were m nt ate ad representations) within limits black and white, line Were cognizeface in various orie s ntations, drawings, caricature 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 629 basic, invariant representations of information (canonical representations), intuitive decisions will ncedecisions. be shaped by Highly acce ssiblefe ature influe s accessibility of features of Fe ature of low acce s ssibility ignore d. the problem Most acce ssiblenot m re vant ost le 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 630 Prospect Theory Pe ptual syste s arede rce m signe to e d nhancechangeand diffe nce re s. Re re de nde not a sim one fe nce pe nt, ple -param te function of e r stim uli Pre re for risk will de nd on how choice arefram d fe nce pe s e (gains / losse and there re point for the change s) fe nce se s 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 631 Utility Theory - Bernoulli A changein theutility associate with a changein we d alth is inve ly proportional to initial we rse alth. Utility function is logarithm ic For a changein we of $X, the alth change in utility s arelargewhe n we is low, and alth sm whe all n we is high. alth Utility We alth 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 632 Utility Theory - Bernoulli A changein theutility associate with a changein we d alth is inve ly proportional to initial we rse alth. Utility function is logarithm ic Decision rule for risky decisions: maximize expected utility of wealth Intended to be both prescriptive and descriptive 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 633 Utility Theory: Prospect Theory sand speculative Fram de ing cisions as be e ce twe n rtain losse change in we re s alth sults in pre re for spe fe nce culativerisks Whe fram d in theconte of individual we n e xt alth, change are s se n as trivially sm e all Assum ption of utility the is that gains and losse are ory s TRANS FORMED into re se pre ntations of final asse t state s....but this is unlikely 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 634 Framing effect Would you accept this Estimate your total wealth, W. Which situation is gamble? more attractive? You own W. 50% chance to win $150 50% chance to lose $100 50% chance that you own W +$150 50% chance that you own W-$100 Few takers: people reject even chances to gain or lose unless win at least 2 times the loss. 05/13/09 Formally the same, but slight preference for the gamble 635 I ntroduction to C ognition Framing effects First situation e s e otions associate with im e voke m d m diate outcom s, without re re to ove we e fe nce rall alth. Littlesyste atic study of "we fram " ve "gains and m alth e rsus losse fram . s" e alth-fram should re in gre r risk-ne e sult ate utrality We inate loss ave s rsion Elim e all ts e xt rall Outcom s of sm be se n in conte of ove we alth 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 636 utility are changes in wealth rather than asset positions fromMorgan Joeand Joannegot the m ir onthly state e m nts S tanle y Joe portfolio valuewe from$4M to $3M. 's nt Joanne portfolio valuewe from$1M to $1.2M. 's nt Utility theory: Who has more reason to be satisfied with financial situation? Prospect theory: Who is happier today? 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 637 Summary Most de cisions arem rapidly on thebasis of natural ade asse e or im ssions of acce ssm nts pre ssiblefe ature of situations. s Fram of choice influe s choiceby affe ing s nce cting theacce ssibility of spe attribute inform cific s, ation, e otional state m s. Risky choice areusually fram d in te s of gains and losse s e rm s re lativeto a ze fe ncepoint rathe than spe re re ro-re re r cific fe nce state such as total we s, alth. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 638 Ove w Anim C rvie al ognition What arethefundam ntal issue e s? What is thenatureof anim cognition? al Dom that arestudie ains d C m om unication De ption ce S nseof se Mirror S lf Re e lf, e cognition Foraging & food caching Navigation Proble S m olving / Tool Use Unde rstanding of space Unde rstanding of num r be S nsation se ultraviole spe e e t ctrum faste te poral re , r m solution in vision; he highe and ar r lowe fre ncie m se r que s; ore nsitiveche ical se s m nse rce Pe ption m Me ory 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 639 De scarte ve Darwin s rsus De scarte s Anim arem als achine that lack a "rational soul" s, Anim do not spe be als ak causethe do not havethoughts y y nge parativepsychologists Ke challe to com 1. De onstratethat anim com unicateto othe m als m rs 2. De onstrateanim arecapableof "inte nt" fle m als llige xibleaction Darwin The is continuity be e anim and hum re twe n als ans 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 640 What is thenatureof anim cognition? al I m e d rsus e plicit ve xplicit nsitiveto certain typesof cognition Brains havebe n shape by natural se ction to bese le inform ation and to re spond by adaptive guiding be ly havior. fle s ry sponse to biologically significant stim s uli Re xe ve fast re plicit cognition routinize skills, prim classical and ope d ing, rant conditioning Im de nd on re se pe pre ntations ne m pisodic m m e ory Explicit cognition occurs with conscious aware ss se antic and e plicit and e xplicit m m gove d by diffe nt brain syste s e ory rne re m Im 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 641 Ence phalization hypothe sis ocorte e x xpands as a function of sizeof social Ne group, lifespan, le ngth of juve pe nile riod. als e ple Anim that livea long tim , in largecom x social groups, ne d a big brain, and a long le e arning pe riod. ans, s, le a lling m m (whale am als s, Hum ape e phants, se dwe dolphins, pinnipe ds) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 642 I nfant and anim m m se m al e ory e s large imxplicit memory & what ly plicit Whe do infants display e n e nceis the for e vide re xplicit m m in othe e ory r anim als? fe d itation obse m l, re rve ode produce De rre im be havior afte som de r e lay nce fe d itation in first ye (puppe ar t Evide for de rre im & glovee rim nt) xpe e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 643 Tom llo e al (1993) De rre im ase t fe d itation in chim & childre measured ps target objects n Base activity with line an ode t havior with Adult hum m l displays targe be theobje cts r lays, e nculturate chim wild chim 18d ps, ps, Afte de m onth-old hum 30-m ans, onth-old hum re ans pre nte with obje se d cts. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 644 Tom llo e al (1993) De rre im ase t fe d itation in chim & childre ps n 80% 60% Pe nt succe rce ssful de rre im fe d itation 40% 20% 0% 18 M C ld h . 30 M C ld h E No E n C im s C im s h p h p Thefinding of DI is consiste with position that chim havesym nt ps bolic re se pre ntation and e xplicit m m e ory. Only e xhibite by e d nculturate chim fle d ps xiblecognition, influe d by e rie . nce xpe nce 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 645 Two thre in anim cognition ads al vide sse Ethological e nceof cognitiveproce s from naturally occurring be havior, prim arily in thewild rim ntal vide sse Expe e e nceof cognitiveproce s from standardize e rim ntal proce s d xpe e dure rim ntal thology Expe e e 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 646 Tinbe n's Four Que rge stions ausation What in thee nvironm nt, in theorganism e C trigge be rs havior? s , Function What doe it do for theorganism what is the adaptivevalue ? ve e s r span? De lopm nt How doe it unfold ove life d havior? Evolution What is thehistory that le to thebe 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 647 Com unication m stural, postural, olfactory, othe che ical r m Vocal, ge lassical approach fixe e otional control d, m C arne Vocal le rs ans, le s als Hum e phants?, whale & dolphins, se & walruse bats, m ?, parrot-fam song-birds s, ice ily, arne pe Non-le rs: Innatere rtoireof sounds for inform ation com unication or e m xchange 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 648 Com unication m arning appe to bethenormfor vocal com unication ars m Non-le am non-hum prim s ong an ate cts afe Effe of de ning at birth ross-spe s re cie aring/foste ring C trong e ncefor fle vide xibility in re sponseto calls, plasticity in the S C ONTEXT of calls, no e ncefor le d (non-m vide arne aturational) change in calls s trong e ncefor re vide cognition of hum spe ch, ability to an e S m anipulatelanguagesym bols, usecom unicative m ly 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 649 r: rve cts" re Marle obse d "diale in sparrows in diffe nt S Francisco ne an ighborhoods C m om unication: vocal le arning in songbirds d Move to lab arning occurs in young birds, during a se nsitive Vocal le pe riod, continue through social fe dback s e st m s ale We & King: cowbird fe ale shapem song...with C Ds...m s changesongs to includem patte S ale ore rns that e C Ds licit S 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 650 Le d vocal com unication: song arne m birds sin length of day, C ausation of song: se asonal change te pe m rature hum , idity, food supply, pre nceof fe ale se m ...e S Function of song: affiliative licits C D (or not) ve e ust ar riod, De lopm nt: m he tutor song during critical pe trigge ge e ssion for de lopm nt of spe nucle rs ne xpre ve e cific i that control song, builds a te plate produce "sub-song" that m , s achie s be r approxim ve tte ation of adult song; song continue s to beshape by social inte d raction ny gging calls Evolution ontoge in food-be 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 651 Ge tic basis of vocal le ne arning ability FOXP2, ge which e ne ncode a fam of prote unde s a s ily ins rlie hum de lopm ntal languageabnorm an ve e ality, buccal-oral apraxia- im paire ve flue language d rbal ncy, com he pre nsion, languageproduction; structural abnorm alitie s in brain Te itsu, e al (2004) ide ram t ntifie ze finch analogue FoxP2 d bra , & are in brain whe actived1, d35, d150 and in fe as re tal hum brain an Le d vocal com unication: song arne m birds 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 652 Figure 1. Schematic views of the avian song circuit and human cortico-basal gangliathalamo-cortical circuitry Teramitsu, I. et al. J. Neurosci. 2004;24:3152-3163 Ge e ssion patte aresim in bird and hum brain. ne xpre rns ilar an 05/13/09 Copyright 2004 Society for Neuroscience I ntroduction to C ognition 653 Le d vocal com unication: dolphins arne m ignaturewhistle in first m s, onths of life whistle ; S m atching; Janik (2000), Tyack (2000) t -nosedolphins can Richards, e al (1984) bottle im itatecom r ge rate whistle and clicks on pute ne d s first try; assign uniquenam s to obje e cts 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 654 Le d vocal com unication: whale arne m s d s Toothe whale s, e be password whistle signaling group m m rship ignaling to fe ale m s S onar, de location pth S pbacke whale d s Hum s rn e am Male sing on theway to southe bre ding grounds. S esong within group, with distancebe e groups, progre ly le twe n ssive ss sim ilarity in songs s Annual change in song, usually gradual rve r w d Rapid changeobse d 1997 1998 afte ne song introduce by two "strange rs" 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 655 Com unication with hum m ans Dogs r cognition vocabulary of >400 words, e nceof vide "wonde dog" re fast-m apping (nove word applie to nove obje l d l ct) hare , m e S d gaze com unicativegazeto se k assistance spond to pointing to find hidde food n Re C ats hare , ry ite m S d gaze ve lim d useof com unicativegaze spond to pointing to find hidde food n Re Goats spond to pointing to find hidde food n Re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 656 De ption just an ope ce rant? Or e nceof vide The of Mind? ory ce Malede ption s: ale ale Ape Low-status m s courting a high-status m 's fe ale hidethe e ctions m s, ir re s: n Walruse usually vocalizeloudly whe approaching fe ale approach sile whe m dom m s ntly n ore inant m ale pre nt se Food caching rve rve -hide Birds if obse d, wait for obse r to fly away, re ce xpe e signs with ape s De ptivepointing in e rim ntal de & prosim ians 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 657 De ption just an ope ce rant? Or e nceof vide The of Mind? ory Woodruff & Pre ack (1979) m d ps traine 4 chim to point to a box containing food with a "coope rativetraine (who the gavechim thefood) r" n p pe r" ps d With "com titivetraine who atethefood, 2 chim pointe to e pty box whe com titivetraine appe d. m n pe r are ce m d ve cie De ptivepointing also de onstrate in se ral spe s of m y onke Ge & Roe r (2006) partial re nty de plication with 3 le urs: one m re d to participate onewithhe inform fuse , ld ation, onepointe d de ptive ce ly 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 658 S nseof se Mirror S lf Re e lf: e cognition sts Mirror se cognition m thebete of a continuumof re se lf-re arks ginning pre ntation of these lf, thinking about these m ntal stateattribution (the of m lf, e ory ind). "Mark te placeodorle paint on location invisiblee pt in a m st" ss xce irror. If anim al se ctive inspe thepainte spot guide by them le ly cts d d irror, it is conside d to re re cognize itse in them lf irror. Im portanceof MS is in its cognitivecorre s R late Distinction be e e twe n nvironm nt & se allows advance formof re se e lf d pre ntation S ct conne with obje e otional statebut re ubje cts ct's m tains re se pre ntation of who is in the e otional state e otional e pathy rathe than e otional contagion m m m r m 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 659 S nseof se Mirror S lf Re e lf: e cognition te sts MS R Who passe s? 18+ m onth hum ans Ele phants Plotnik, e al (2006) t C ps Gallup (1970) him Gorillas Dolphins Re & Marino (2001) iss Who flunks? ong a S birds, crows Kusayam (2000) Dogs C +? apuchin m y - deWaal, e al (2005) onke t C ppe rg t Parrots Pe rbe e al (1995) 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 660 S nseof se Mirror S lf Re e lf: e cognition te repeatedly explored an "X" sts Happy painte on he he whilelooking at d r ad he im in thegiant m r age irror. A se cond e phant did not touch the le "X" but did re ate fan out he e pe dly r ars with he trunk and inspe theinside r ct , which is norm not visibleto the ally e phant. le 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 661 Locations of visible and invisible patches on bottle nose dolphin De cals, rathe than r painte spots we d re use S ewe d. om re transpare so the nt, y could befe but not lt, se n. e Reiss, Diana and Marino, Lori (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5937-5942 05/13/09 Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences I ntroduction to C ognition 662 Dolphin engaging in species atypical behavior, inspecting visible patches, looking for invisible patch Dolphins did not inspe ct patche on othe dolphins. s r C ps sm are with re him e d d paint inspe the se s in ct m lve them irror & inspe painte ct d are of othe chim as r ps. C ps e him ngagein groom ing be havior, dolphins do not. Reiss, Diana and Marino, Lori (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5937-5942 05/13/09 Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences I ntroduction to C ognition 663 S nseof se Mirror S lf Re e lf: e cognition te a stranger" deWaal, Dindo, sts "Themonkey in themirror: Hardly Fre m & Hall. Proce dings of theNational Acade y of e an e m S nce 2005 cie , C pare re om d sponseto se re ction with re lf fle sponseto live m y onke Thre stim conditions, adult m and fe alebrown e ulus ale m capuchin m ys onke 1. Fam sam -se partne iliar e x r 2. Unfam sam -se partne iliar e x r 3. Mirror 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 664 MS capuchins deWaal, e al (2005) R, t Monke e re a cham r, y nte d be divide by ple d xiglass partition. Mirror, or othe m y on the r onke othe side r Vide otape 15 m d inute fromtwo angle s, s Each subje in e condition twice with sam partne te d ct ach , e rs; ste oncea day Vide code for 16 be os d haviors and tim of be ing havior, socially positiveor socially ne gative 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 665 MS capuchins deWaal, e al (2005) R, t Positivebe haviors: e contact, frie ye ndly sway, lip sm acking, bunny sit (fe ale only duration of m r infant contact; longe m s othe r contact associate with anxie d ty) Ne gativebe haviors: avoidanceof e contact, sque ye aling, curling up, e brow raise thre display, glancing, "cut-off" ye , at re action 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 666 Fig. 3. Photographs showing typical reactions to each condition Mirror condition: e contact, ye m anipulation of m irror S trange condition: m r utual avoidance , "cut-off" re action fam condition: re d posture iliar laxe s de Waal, Frans B. M. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 11140-11147 05/13/09 Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences I ntroduction to C ognition 667 Fig. 4. Percent of time mothers and newborns were in body contact under the three conditions, arranged from left to right from the female with the youngest to the one with the oldest infant, all under 1 year of age Mirror condition is inte e rm diatebe e twe n fam and strange iliar r condition. de Waal, Frans B. M. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 11140-11147 05/13/09 Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences I ntroduction to C ognition 668 Fig. 5. Aggregate positive behavior directed at the partner or mirror compared with aggregate negative behavior de Waal, Frans B. M. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 11140-11147 05/13/09 Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences I ntroduction to C ognition 669 MS capuchins deWaal, e al (2005) R, t C onclusions: C apuchin m ys did NOT se mto re onke e cognize the se s in them m lve irror ction of norm invisiblebody parts ally No inspe havior with m irror im ve diffe nt frombe age ry re havior Be with strange r s acte ore nse are d Male re d m inte ly, appe d confuse by re ctions fle age gular strange r" Mirror im is not a "re 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 670 MS capuchins deWaal, e al (2005) R, t Thre pote e ntial re actions to m irror im of se age lf "I t's ME!" capuchins do not havethis re action "No OneThe " it isn't re anothe m y, and the is no possibility re ally r onke re for re ciprocal inte raction Doe not e s xplain high status m s' anxious re ale actions "Puzzling Othe a conspe r" cific, but onewho doe "play by therule sn't s"... a m who can't bedom ale inate d? Many ope que n stions, to bere solve by futurere arch..... d se 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 671 S m on Anim C um ary al ognition Anim cognition is of scie al ntific inte st for its own saketo thebiologist, re e thologist, com parativepsychologist. To thee volutionary psychologist, thede lopm ntal psychologist, the ve e cognitivepsychologist, anim be al havior and cognition is of inte st re be causeof theinsights it m offe into theorigins of analogous hum ay r an proce s. sse Anim m ls of basic and dise proce s allow control of ge tic, al ode ase sse ne e nvironm ntal, and e rie e xpe ntial variable that cannot becontrolle for s d with hum subje an cts. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 672 The areboth S se HORT (10 page s).....theoriginal articleI had inte d to assign was nde 61 page The article re w sim m rial, but m se ral diffe nt points. s. se s vie ilar ate ake ve re Re both. ad rs.e ntal_Re ps.pdf http://ruccs.rutge du/faculty/GnG/Me l, . ntal pre ntations, psychology of, Encylope dia Galliste C R. (2001). Me re se of theBe havioral and S ocial S nce Ne York: Else r cie s. w vie http://ruccs.rutge du/faculty/GnG/nature rs.e _of_le arning.pdf Galliste C (2006, in pre l, .R. ss) Thenatureof le arning and thefunctional archite ctureof thebrain. I n Q. Jing, e al t (Eds) Psychological S nceAround theWorld, vol 1. Proce dings of the28th cie e Inte rnational C ongre of Psychology. S x: Psychology Pre ss usse ss. 05/13/09 I ntroduction to C ognition 673 ...
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