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Unformatted text preview: Modern History II Notes – 2/22/06 Mexican Revolution, 1910-1917 • Mexican-American War (1846-1848) – embarrassing defeat for the Mexican elite, huge victory for US slave-holders o Mexican elite (mostly in the north) brought about measures to modernize Mexico • Porfirio Diaz – elected president in 1876, gradually becomes a dictator and rules until the revolution topples him in 1911 o Shared a lot with the conservatives of Europe – surrounded himself with a group of advisors know as the cientificos who created a powerful modern nation-state called Porfiriata o Cientificos – educated, established a railway system that linked Mexico more securely to the US (US becomes major market for Mexican exports) and that linked the regions of Mexico together for the first time, made important connections with foreign capitalists and banks (particularly in the US and Britain) and encouraged them to invest in the Mexican economy Foreign capital finances railway system, mining industry, textile and steel production, and the oil industry (most profitable) • Most of the population is excluded from the modernization (~80% were peasants) except perhaps as temporary laborers • Most Mexicans were Indians, many lived in rural villages, subsistence farmers (grew corn, beans, chiles, etc.) that farmed to live (not to export) • Cientificos were Social Darwinists – saw the Indians as the fundamentally weaker race that was destined to fade away (very patronizing view towards most of the population) o Lands upon which peasants depended were seen as free for the taking – Indian peasant villages had be traditionally connected to farmlands that had been protected during the colonial period but not after independence in 1820 Village lands are gradually taken from villages and given to the large landholders called the haciendados • Haciendados – focused on more profitable crops that could be exported o Morelos – large sugar haciendas emerged at the expense of the villages, perfect climate for sugar 118 different villages in 1876, only 100 in 1900 • Emiliano Zapata – from Morelos, major peasant leader • From the poor’s perspective the Porfiriata was devastating – factory production decimated local artisans, reflection of Mexican agriculture towards export products (sugar and cotton) was...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HS 032 taught by Professor Rugemer during the Spring '07 term at BC.
- Spring '07