Patho Notes

Patho Notes - Inflammation • Initially rapid then...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/10/07 Inflammation • Initially rapid, then stagnates • PMNs (primarily neutrophils) leave the bloodstream and line the vessel, squeezed out and travel to the injured tissues = immigration o Immigration begins within a few minutes of injury • Migration of WBCs is important because they can destroy the injurous agent, neutralize the toxins, and remove the inflammatory debris of dead cells and bacteria • Chemotaxis – leukocytes are called to the site of inflammation by chemical signals sent by the injured tissue, directional orientation by leukocytes by chemical transmission • Phagocytosis – engulfing and ingesting foreign debris is a very important part of the immune system, breakdown of products engulf eventually kills phagocytes o Major phagocytes – neutrophils and macrophages; produces protolytic enzymes which help destroy and digest • WBCs release bacteriacidal enzymes (ex. lysozyme) • Mast cells – important activator of inflammatory response, in connective tissue, mucous membranes • Leukotriens – synthesized by mast cells, actions similar to histamine, cause neutrophil and eosinophil chemotaxis, response is slower and more prolonged than histamine, tend to be seen in later stages of inflammation • Histamine and serotonin – major mediators of increased vascular permeability • Also mediated by 3 key plasma protein systems – kinin (bradykinin most important), complement – major mediator in inflammatory response – enhances chemotaxis, increases vascular permeability (allows things to get to area), causes cell lysis in final conversion; clotting system – stops bleeding, can localize microorganisms, provides meshwork for repair and healing Terminology • Exudate – fluids, cells, or other substances that have been discharged from other substances; need to know amount, color, odor, and consistency of it, 1 gram drainage = 1mL blood • Serous – protein-rich fluid that escapes early in inflammation, clear • Sanguinous – fresh bleeding • Serosanguinous – combination of serous and sanguinous, more watery than bloody • Purulent – thick, describe color • Pus – dead cells and necrotic tissue • Debridement – removal of dead tissue from wound • Dehiscence – separation of wound edges • Ecchymosis – black and blue marks caused by leakage of blood into subcutaneous tissue (bruise) • Edema – abnormal accumulation of fluid (in interstitial fluid or compartments) • Erythema – redness or inflammation of skin 5 cardinal signs of inflammation – heat, pain, redness, swelling, loss of normal function (result from vasodilation, exudation, and irridation of nerve endings) • Amount of WBCs in blood increases with infection o Neutrophils increase early in inflammation o Erythrocyte sedimentation rate – RBCs settle faster when put in a centrifuge • Resolution of inflammation o Simple – no destruction of any tissue, goes on continuously in the body Regeneration – lost or necrotic tissue is replaced by tissue of the same type...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HS 032 taught by Professor Rugemer during the Spring '07 term at BC.

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Patho Notes - Inflammation • Initially rapid then...

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