media - Campbell 5E Update OSG Ch 03 Chapter Summary 1...

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Campbell 5E Update OSG Ch 03 Chapter Summary 1 Technology and the development of sound recording From wax cylinders to flat disks: Sound recording becomes a mass medium The beginning of recording technology can be traced back to the 1850s and to Leon Scott de Martinville. He discovered that he could record sound by using a funnel, a hog bristle, and lamp black . Recorded sound could not be played back, however, until 1877, when Thomas Edison recorded voice on tinfoil wrapped around a cylinder with a needle, and played it back by placing the needle to retrace the groove. This first sound recording device was called a phonograph . With this innovation, sound recording entered its relatively short entrepreneurial stage. The possibilities and uses of sound recording technology were explored, and novelty items like Edison's telephone repeater were invented. In the 1880s, Emile Berliner used a flat five-inch shellac disc, the first record, to record and play back sound. Berliner created the first turntable, called a gramophone . Berliner also developed a system for mass-producing round records, and sound recording entered the mass medium stage. As records became more popular, new formats appeared to replace the original 78-revolutions-per-minute discs. By the mid-1950s, there were two common formats: the 33 1/3 rpm record for long-playing albums and the 45 rpm record for singles (used in jukeboxes). The development of the Victrola, polyvinyl records, and electric players furthered the medium's mass appeal throughout the first half of the twentieth century. From audiotape to CDs, DVDs, and MP3s: Analog goes digital As technology progressed, new methods of recording were developed. German engineers in the 1940s developed magnetized plastic tape called audiotape that led to sound editing, multiple-track mixing, and "home dubbing," or copying records or radio programs. Exploration of magnetic tape eventually led to the audiocassette tapes that became common by the 1970s. Sales of prerecorded cassettes never exceeded record sales, however. That feat was accomplished by the compact disc, a digital medium that allows for superior sound quality. CDs make use of digital recording technology that was developed as early as the 1970s. Stereo, which permitted the recording of separate channels, or tracks, made monophonic (one- track) records obsolete and allowed a more natural playback through two speakers. Digital recording, developed in the 1980s and used on compact discs (CDs), is played back by a laser translating the binary code, and offered a replacement for analog recording, which captured fluctuations of the original sound waves. After being on the market for only four years, CDs in 1987 were selling at a rate double that of records. The advent of recordable CDs (CD-Rs) has helped CD remain the dominant format. MP3s were initially used as part of a video compression standard, and have become increasingly popular. They offer sound quality close to that of CDs and allow music files to be compressed into smaller, more manageable files that can be sent or received easily.
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