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Patho Study Guide I

Patho Study Guide I - Pathophysiology Study Sheet Exam I...

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Pathophysiology Study Sheet: Exam I Inflammation – 10 Questions Acute vs. Chronic o Acute – lasts >1 week, characterized by the exudation of fluid and plasma components and emigration of leukocytes (predominantly neutrophils) into the extravascular tissues, involves mainly PMNs and granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) Vascular phase Tissue injury – large amounts of chemical mediators are released: histamine (initial stage), leukotrienes (later stage), prostaglandins, bradykinin, serotonin, and a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils and macrophages to the injured area Dilation of blood vessels – causes increased blood flow and congestion in the area of injury Increase in capillary permeability – plasma proteins shift from intravascular space to the interstitial space Osmotic gradient – pulls water out of circulation and into the tissue spaces Cellular phase Margination and pavementing – neutrophils and monocytes collect along the endothelial lining of blood vessel walls in the affected area Chemotaxis – directional emigration along a chemotactic gradient to injured area Aggregation, recognition, and phagocytosis – removal of dead cells and necrotic tissue o Chronic – lasts <2 weeks, results in damage to tissues, associated with the presence of lymphocytes and macrophages, proliferation or blood vessels, and tissue necrosis TB Abscesses/fistulas What happens o Vascular stage - momentary constriction of small blood vessels in the area, followed rapidly by vasodilation or the arterioles and venules that supply the area – the area becomes congested, causing redness and warmth, and increase in vessel permeability results in an outpouring of protein-rich fluid (exudate) into the extravascular spaces which causes fluid to move into the tissues which then produces swelling, pain, and impaired function, exudation serves to dilute the offending agent o Neutrophils (PMNs) – primary phagocyte that arrives early at the site of inflammation, contain enzymes and other antibacterial substances that are used in destroying and degrading the engulfed particles Major phagocytes: neutrophils and macrophages o Terms Mast cells - important activator of inflammatory response, in connective tissue and mucous membranes Histamine – derived from mast cells in the damaged tissues and basophils in the blood, released during inflammation causing pain and fever, powerful vasodilator, increases capillary and venule wall permeability and causes smooth muscle contraction Serotonin – released by platelets, contributes to pain, fever, and vasodilation during inflammation Bradykinin – powerful arteriole vasodilator, produces capillary permeability, causes temporary, rapid constriction of smooth muscle of large vessel walls and dilation of post- capillary vessels
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Tuberculosis o Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (acidfast bacilli) o Steps 1. Tubercle bacilli inhaled (90% are destroyed by macrophages) 2.
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