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Patho Study Guide II

Patho Study Guide II - Pathophysiology Study Guide Exam II...

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Pathophysiology Study Guide: Exam II Blood – 17 questions Leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (know what happens, symptoms, complications) – 5 Leukemia – primarily involving the bone marrow, abnormal overproduction of a specific type of WBCs usually at an immature stage o Acute – rapid onset, massive numbers of immature leukocytes, primarily in kids o Chronic –leukocytes are a bit more mature, more common in adults, can revert to acute leukemia and be life-threatening o Types Myeloid – includes granulocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils Monocytic – monocytes Lymphocytic – lymphocytes Lymphoblastic – very immature lymphocytes o Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) – most common malignancy in childhood, 80-85% of leukemia, usually occurs abruptly Symptoms – fever, fatigue, bleeding, bone marrow dysfunction, bone pain, severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, bruising, occult hematuria (blood in urine), lymphadenopathy, joint swelling and pain, weight loss, enlarged spleen and liver, increased uric acid in blood Diagnosis – WBC and differential count, increase of >30% blasts is indicative Hodgkin’s disease – malignant disorder of lymph nodes characterized by presence of Reed- Sternberg cells, metastasizes primarily via lymphatics, due to a malignant transformation of T cells o Symptoms – painless cervical edema , fever, jaundice, enlarged liver and spleen, renal failure, progressive anemia accompanied by fatigue, malaise, anorexia, edema, cyanosis of face and neck, alcohol-induced bone pain, paraplegia, nerve pain Anemia (incl. chronic) – 3 Reduces O 2 carrying capacity for blood Causes – blood loss, increased hemolysis, depressed RBC or Hg production, defective Hg synthesis, bone marrow failure Symptoms o Mild – asymptomatic o Moderate – dyspnea, chronic fatigue, palpitations, diaphoresis with exertion o Severe – pale, exhaustion, heart failure, severe palpitations, cold sensitivity, anorexia, weakness Types o Aplastic anemia – decreased bone marrow function = decrease in all levels of formed blood elements = pancytopenia Causes – genetic, stem cell injury, chemical agents, physical agents, infections Death rate – 80-90% Symptoms – normal anemia symptoms, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia Treatment – bone marrow transplant o Pernicious anemia – caused by malabsorption of vitamin B12, fatal if not treated, lack of B12 inhibits RBC growth Causes – genetic, immunologic related diseases, thyroiditis, older age
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Symptoms – heart failure, weakness, pallor, sore tongue, numbness and tingling in extremities Treatment – B12 injections for life, blood transfusions o Folic acid anemia – similar to pernicious anemia, occurs after 1-2 months of dietary lack of folic acid, common in alcoholics o Iron-deficiency – most common anemia Causes – chronic bleeding, decreased dietary intake Symptoms – usually none, symptoms are like other anemias if severe
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Patho Study Guide II - Pathophysiology Study Guide Exam II...

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