Pharm Notes

Pharm Notes - Pharmacology Notes 1/18/2008 Abbreviations ac...

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Pharmacology Notes 1/18/2008 Abbreviations ac – before meals ad lib – anytime BID or bid – twice a day cc – cubic centimeter gm – gram gtt – drops h. or hr – hours IM – intramuscular IV – intravenous IVPB – intravenous piggyback kg – kilogram KVO – keep vein open mcg – micrograms mg – milligrams mEq – milliequivalents NPO – nothing by mouth pc – after meals po – by mouth PRN – when necessary q – every QID or qid – medication given 4x/day SL – sublingual (under tongue) STAT – immediately TID or tid – 3x/day Error prone abbreviations U – mistaken for 0,4,cc – use “unit” Q.D. – mistaken for QID – use “daily” QOD – mistaken for QID – use “every other day” D/C – mistaken for discontinued – use “discharge” or “discontinued” > or < - mistaken as opposite – use “greater than” or “less than” OD, OS, OU – mistaken for AD, AS, AU – use “right eye,” “left eye,” or “each eye” Hs – can mean either half strength or hours sleeping – spell out Decimal points – don’t use trailing zeros for whole number doses, for decimal doses such as .5mg use 0.5mg Universal problem solver – for medication that’s liquid or tablets (Desired dose/on hand dose) x quantity available = (D/H) x Q (Quantity is always 1 with solid meds, varies with liquids) o Problem – order: Xanax 0.25 mg PO TID, on hand: Xanax 0.5 mg (0.25/0.5) X 1 tablet = 0.5 = ½ tablet o Problem – order: Isoptin 4.5 mg IV BID, on hand: Isoptin 10 mg/4ml (4.5/10) x 4 = 1.8 ml IV calculations: two-step method Two-step method: (amount of fluid/hours to administer) = ml/hr, (ml/hr x gtt/ml (IV set))/60 minutes = gtt/ min o Problem – order: 1000ml of D5W every 8 hours IV, IV drop set factor is 15 gtt/ml (1000ml/8hours) = 125 ml/hr
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(125 ml/hr x 15)/60 = 31.25 gtt/min = 31-32 drops/min o Problem – order: administer IV at 75ml/hr, gtt factor is 10/gtt/ml (75 x 10)/60 = 12.5 gtt/min = 12.5-13 drops/min One-step method: (amount of fluid x gtt/ml)/(hours to administer x 60) = gtt/min Terminology Pharmacology – study of the effect of chemical substances on living systems o Pharmacotherapeutics – deals with the relative effects of drugs in the human system for various disorders o Pharmacodynamics – deals with experimental science pertaining to theories of drug action o Pharmacokinetics – study of drug’s alterations during its trip through the body as it is absorbed, distributed, bound to or localized in tissues, biotransformed and excreted o Pharmacogenetics – study of genetically-induced drug responses that are often responsible for some idiosyncratic responses Drugs Definition – any substance for use in diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of a disease or condition o FDA includes any substance listed in the USP or British pharmacopedia and all substances other
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course NU 204 taught by Professor Fairchild during the Spring '08 term at BC.

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Pharm Notes - Pharmacology Notes 1/18/2008 Abbreviations ac...

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