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SOC 340: Sociology of DevianceEXAM 1 NOTESLecture One:Deviancy:Deviancy is a violation of social norms.Norms are behavioral codes and scripts conforming to acceptable standards that guide our actions and self-presentations.Who defines Deviance?oThe ‘Everyman’ what is considered deviant by everyman or majority at that point in time.oThe ‘majority’ in almost every group.What is deviant is changeable.The group can be large or small; size doesn’t matter.William Sumner’s (1906) Three Broad Categories:FolkwaysoRefers to simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions, or etiquette.oInformal sanction: not saying please or thank you and someone corrects you, EX: Don’t speak loudly in a library.MoresoNorms are based on broad social morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation.oMorality, EX: Don’t have sex before marriage.oOne step up from Folkways.LawsoThe strongest social norms supported by codified social sanctions.oThe highest level.More Norm Types:Prescriptive:oTell us what to do.oRemember by ‘prescription’.oEX: You’re supposed to go to college. OR, say please when you want something.Proscriptive:oTell us what not to do.oEX: Don’t drink when underage. OR, don’t chew with your mouth open.OR, don’t drive drunk.Roles:oA bundle of norms governing a ‘position’ in society.Societal Functions of Norms:Control Behavior– Most humans are controlled by normative structure, most conform, chaos inhibitor.Insures that society’s needs are met.oEX: Police officer or truck driver.
Help us predict how others will behave.We know the norms, and we know that most people will conform to the norms. This knowledge gives us a sense of comfort. Contributes to order in society.We don’t like to be told what to do individually, but we do like to be controlled.EX: Walking on the right side of the sidewalk.Creation of Norms:Conflict Model– Powerful humans create the norms and impose them in everyone else.oEX: Upper class white protestant male powerful humans.Consensus Model– All types of humans agree about norms that should exist, therefore they come into existence.oEX: Women in the MilitaryCrime & Deviancy:These are overlapping categories with independent dimensions.Some deviancy is not criminal.oEX: Stuttering, handicaps, physical shape.Some crimes are not deviant.oEX: Tax evasion is a crime, but generally does not violate social norms or bring moral censure.Ascribed & Achieved Status:Ascribed Deviant Status:oThese are traits that someone is born with:oEX: Physical defects, being poor, race, height, weight, sex, things that often cannot be changed.oCAN HAPPEN AFTER WITH NO FAULT OF YOUR OWN!Achieved Deviant Status:oThese are traits that someone has taken on:oEX: Alternative attitudes or beliefs, violating normative dress codes, joining a gang, becoming a student.