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Slide Notes - Introduction Super computing 21 million times...

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Introduction Super computing ; 21 million times improvement in 48 years UNIVACI, 1951: 100,000 OPS/second ASCI Red, 1999: 2,100,000,000 OPS/second Moore’s Law - the number of transistors that can be inexpensively placed on an integrated circuit is increasing exponentially, doubling approximately every two years (24 months). Types of software : Systems software -- runs the computer or system Operating system ( OS ) - allocates computer’s resources ; processor time, memory, storage space. Provides platform to run other software. Ex. Windows, Linux, OS X, Unix Hardware drivers - interface between the hardware and the operating system Ex. Printer drivers, graphics card drivers Embedded software - software on any device with a microprocessor mobile phones, microwaves, networking equipment Programming software -- assists in writing more software Ex. Microsoft Visual Studio, Eclipse, Dreamweaver Application software -- anything that helps a user perform a task Ex. E-mail, word processing, internet browsing, gaming Killer app ? - “Simply put, a killer app is an application so compelling that someone will buy the hardware or software components necessary to run it.” Fundamental unit of computing - the Bit B inary dig it 0 or 1, on or off, true or false 8 bits = 1 byte 1024 (210) bytes = 1 kilobyte 1024 kilobytes = 1 Megabyte = 220 bytes All files and programs are fundamentally composed of bits
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Internet Communication Types (text pg. 70) Synchronous Circuit Switched Telephone, broacast TV Asynchronous Packet-switched E-mail, voice mail, snail mail Broadcast One sender, many receivers, i.e. radio Multicast One sender, many receivers, but not everyone Point-to-point One sender, one receiver, i.e. telephone call *The Internet is asynchronous but can do broadcasts, multi-casts or point-to-point Client/Server Model - Network communication takes place between a server and client - Server : provides services and data to multiple clients - Client : requests services Internet Inter connected Net work Publicly available, worldwide system of interconnected networks -Thousands of smaller commercial, academic, and government networks -Transmits data using packet switching using Internet Protocol (IP) Not the World Wide Web History of the Internet 1957 : Advanced Research Projects Association (ARPA, now DARPA) - Research focuses: -Making network more robust, improve survivability -Ways to connect supercomputers to universities and labs - (Later) ways to connect different networks to one another 1960s : Many research groups simultaneously work on solutions - Decentralized network - Packet switching -Data divided into packets and sent across network, reassembled at destination 1969 : ARPANET born - Predecessor of internet - Just 4 hosts: UCLA, Stanford, USCB, Univ. of Utah - No established communications protocols
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1960s : MILNET (military users) 1971 : First network e-mail sent at BBN 1980s : Various types of networks - Usenet (1980): email, file transfer, newsgroups (via phone lines)
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course CS 110 taught by Professor Cettei during the Spring '08 term at UVA.

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Slide Notes - Introduction Super computing 21 million times...

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