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Chapter 17: Blood AssignmentFor this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color. Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors.There is a tutorial on blood cells in Blackboard under the Lab Tutorial button. Useit to study the different kinds of blood cells. Under the External Links buttonBlood Functions: Understand the following functions of Blood.i) Transport Nutrients, Hormones, Wastesii) Regulates Body Temperatureiii) Provides Protection (Immune Response, Hemostasis)Blood Composition: write a short description of each of the following components of bloodPlasma-Blood plasma is a mixture of proteins, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, hormones and gases.Proteins-These are the most abundant substance in plasma by weight and play a part in a varietyof roles including clotting, defense and transport.Electrolytes-The most abundant of these are sodium ions, which account for more of the blood’sosmolarity than any other solute.Gases-Some oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported by plasma. Plasma also contains asubstantial amount of dissolved nitrogen.Water-Functions as a solvent for blood, in transport, temperature regulation, and serves as a siteof metabolic reactions.Nutrients-Those absorbed by the digestive tract are transported in the blood plasma. Theseinclude glucose, amino acids, fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, vitamins and minerals.Wastes-Being toxic end products of the breakdown of substances in the body, these are usuallycleared from the bloodstream and are excreted by the kidneys at a rate that balances theirproduction.Formed Elements (cells): Briefly describe the functions for the following cells:Table 17.2 on page 644 in the textbook gives you a summary of the formed elements of the blood.1
Erythrocytes- Carry oxygen from the lungs to your body’s tissue and take carbon dioxide back toyour lungs to be exhaled.Leukocytes- Leukocytes are the first line of defense of the immune system. Leukocytes arederived from bone marrow stem cells and have three main categories: Lymphocytes, Phagocytes,and Auxiliary Cells. Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are called granulocytes because theyhave granules in their cytoplasm.Platelets- The principal function of platelets is to prevent bleeding.Red Blood Cell (RBC) = Erythrocyte:Figure 17.7 on page 638 in the textbook reviews the life cycle of RBC’sRed blood cells (erythrocytes) are biconcave disks and this shape increases the _____increase RC count_of the cell and maximizes diffusion of gases. Watch the hemoglobin animation in the course documents.The ______hemoglobin_______ protein binds oxygen in RBCs.When oxygen combines with hemoglobin, it forms bright red_______oxyhemoglobin__.