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LECTURE NOTE ON C++ - LECTURE NOTE ON C+ Introduction C+ is...

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LECTURE NOTE ON C++IntroductionC++ is a general purpose programming language. It has imperative, object oriented and genericprogramming features, while also providing the facilities for low level memory manipulation. Itis designed with a bias for systems programming e.g. embedded systems, OS kernels, withperformance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design requirements. C++ has also beenfound useful in many other contexts, including desktop applications, servers e.g. e – commerce,web search, SQL, performance critical applications e.g. telephone switches and entertainmentsoftware, such as video games.C++ was developed by Stroustrup Bjarne at bell labs, starting in 1979, who wanted an efficientflexible language (like C) that also provided high level features for program organization. Manyother programming languages have been influenced by C++, including C#, Java etc.UNIT ONEOBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING CONCEPTSOverviewObject oriented programming (OOP) was first developed in the 1960s, as a programmingconcept to help Software Developers build high quality software. Object-orientation is also aconcept which makes developing of projects easier. Consequently, object-oriented programmingattempts to solve the problems with only one approach; dividing the problems in sub-modulesand using different objects. Objects of the program interact by sending messages to each other.To understand the actual concept of object orientation and the OOP, we should first beacquainted with the basic concepts of OOP and ought to know the exclusive terms used. Object-oriented programming (OOP) reorganizes the programming problem to allow for a higher levelof abstraction. Programming with objects is quite like working with real-world objects. It groupsoperations and data into modular units called objects. These objects can be combined intostructured networks to form a complete program, similar to how the pieces in a puzzle fittogether to create a picture. By breaking down complex software projects into small, selfcontained, and modular units,objectorientation ensures that changes to one part of a softwareproject will not adversely affect other portions of the software.Objectorientation also aidssoftware reuse. Once functionality is created in one program, it can easily be reused in otherprograms.
Definition:“Object-oriented programming is a programming approach that provides a way ofmodularizing programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and functions that canbe used as templates for creating copies of such modules on demand.” Thus, an object isconsidered to be a partitioned area of the computer memory that stores data and set of operationsthat can access that data. Since the memory partitions are independent, the objects can be used ina variety of different programs without modifications.

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