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Sources and Properties of Amazonian Aerosol ParticlesScot T. Martin,1,*Meinrat O. Andreae,2Paulo Artaxo,3Darrel Baumgardner,4Qi Chen,1Allen H.Goldstein,5Alex Guenther,6Colette L. Heald,7Olga L. Mayol-Bracero,8Peter H. McMurry,9Theotonio Pauliquevis,10Ulrich Pöschl,2Kimberly A. Prather,11Gregory C. Roberts,12Scott R.Saleska,13M.A. Silva Dias,14Dominick V. Spracklen,15Erik Swietlicki,16and Ivonne Trebs21.School of Engineering and Applied Sciences & Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences,Harvard University, USA2.Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany3.Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, Brazil4.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CiudadUniversitaria, Mexico5.Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management, University of California atBerkeley, USA6.Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA7.Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, USA8.Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico, USA9.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA.10.Climate and Environmental Modelling Group, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia,Brazil11.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Universityof California at San Diego, USA12.Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA13.Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, USA14.Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies, National Institute for Space Research,and University of São Paulo, Brazil15.Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, Universityof Leeds, United Kingdom16.Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden*To Whom Correspondence Should be Addressed ([email protected])Submitted December 2008 to Reviews of GeophysicsRevised August 20091
Table of Contents1.4Introduction2.10Sources2.1.11Primary Particles2.1.1.11Primary Biological Particles2.1.2.13Biomass Burning2.1.3.14African Mineral Dust2.1.4.15Marine Emissions2.2.16Secondary Gas-to-Particle Conversion2.2.1.17Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds2.2.2.23New Particle Formation3.26Properties3.1.26Mass Concentration3.2.29Number-Diameter Distribution3.3.33Chemical Composition3.3.1.33Organic Component3.3.2.37Inorganic Component3.4.40Hygroscopicity3.5.43Cloud Condensation Nuclei4.46Outlook and Future Priorities4.1.48Priorities for Improved Models4.2.49Priorities for Improved Measurements2
3AbstractThis review provides a comprehensive account about what is known presently aboutAmazonian aerosol particles and concludes by formulating outlook and priorities for furtherresearch. The review is organized to follow the life cycle of Amazonian aerosol particles. Itbegins with a discussion of the primary and secondary sources relevant to the Amazonianparticle burden, followed by a presentation of the particle properties that characterize the mixedpopulations present over the Amazon Basin at different times and places. These propertiesinclude number and mass concentrations and distributions, chemical composition,hygroscopicity, and cloud nucleation ability. The review presents Amazonian aerosol particles inthe context of natural compared to anthropogenic sources as well as variability with season andmeteorology. This review is intended to facilitate an understanding of the current state of

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Term
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Amazon Rainforest, Amazon basin

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