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Unformatted text preview: BIO REVIEW: 80MC (1PT), 4 FREE RESPONSE (4PT) 1.) Biology-the study of life Question explains itself. Biology is the study of life. 2.) Terms: unicellular, multicellular, eukaryotic, prokaryotic Unicellular: one cell Multicellular: more than one cell Eukaryotic: has a distinct nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane, as well as a variety of other characteristics (membranous organelles) Prokaryotic: has no nucleus or membrane bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, or Golgi bodies). The cells of bacteria and blue-green algae are prokaryotic 3.) know the Characteristics of Life: presence of carbon, organization & complexity, metabolism, homeostasis, response to stimuli, reproduction, and growth know the Five Kingdoms of Life: monera (bacteria), protista (protozoans & algae), fungi, plantae, animalia; common examples and characteristics of each First part of question answers itself. 1.) Monera: are unicellular organisms that are simple in structure. They lack nuclei in their cells and are prokaryotic. Example: bacteria 2.) Protista: are unicellular and possess a nucleus. They are eukaryotes. Example: protozoans and algae. 3.) Fungi: are multicellular, eukaryotic, and heterotrophic. They obtain their food from other organisms. Examples: mushrooms, molds, yeast. 4.) Plantae: they are eukaryotic, multicellular, and autotrophic (self-feeding). They use sunlight or other inorganic energy sources to synthesize organic matter that can serve as food (photosynthesis) example: plants 5.) Animalia: they are eukaryotic, multicellular, and heterotrophic. They are capable of movement. Reproduction is sexual. Examples: lizards, insects, humans, etc 4.) know the Types of microscopes: compound light microscope (used in lab), dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope The Question answers itself. The types of microscopes are: compound light microscope (used in lab), dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope 5.) know for what purposes compound light, dissecting, transmission and scanning (electron) microscopes are used compound light is a microscope that uses two or more lenses and a light source to magnify objects. It is the most common microscope used to observe organisms. Dissecting microscope is used for observing and dissecting larger specimens. Transmission microscope is used for viewing the internal structure of cells and cell parts. The scanning electron microscope is used to study the surface detail of specimens and specimens too thick for viewing with the transmission microscope. 6.) know the Major parts of compound light microscope (fig 1.1), and what each part does Eyepiece: the lens that you look through. They enlarge the image that the telescope produces. Changing the eyepiece will change the magnification Objective: the lowers lenses closest to the specimen in a microscope. They receive the first light rays from the object being observed. The objective is also called the object lens, object glass, and objective glass. Mechanical Stage: A device which is mounted on the microscope stage, and by means of two dials allows precise movement and positioning of the slide. Coarse adjustment knob is the first device for focusing. This knob is used to determine a sharp focus. Fine adjustment knob is used to sharply focus the image in greater detail. 7.) -how a wet mount is prepared, Place a drop of material to be examined on a slide or if the material is dry, place it directly on the slide and add a drop of water. Then add a coverslip. Lower one side of the coverslip so that it touches one side of the drop at 45 degrees. 8.) -why stains are sometimes used in microscopy Cell staining is a technique that can be used to better visualize cells and cell components under a microscope. By using different stains, one can preferentially stain certain cell components, such as a nucleus or a cell wall, or the entire cell. 9.) Terms: resolution and magnification, and how to calculate magnification Resolution: The measure of sharpness of an image Magnification: The apparent enlargement of an object by an optical instrument how to calculate magnification: size of illustration under the microscope/ actual size of illustration 10.) know the 3 parts of the cell theory 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life. 3. All cells arise from previously existing cells. 11.) all living organisms are composed of cells, Question answers itself 12.) cell is the basic functional unit of living organisms, Question answers itself 13.) all cells arise from previously existing cells Question answers itself 14.) know the Characteristics of ALL cells: DNA/genetic material, cell membrane, cytoplasm 1. Cell Membrane- boundary between interior of cell and external environment. 2. Cytoplasm everything outside the nucleus (if Present) and within the cell membrane. 3. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid; the hereditary material that contains information to direct cell reproduction and other processes. 15.) know the parts of a typical cell and the function of major cellular organelles, (table 2.1, figure2.4) such as: cell (plasma) membrane; ribosomes; golgi complex; mitochondria; chromosomes; nucleus; lysosomes; endoplasmic reticulum; etc. Nucleolus: one or more may be present; contains RNA and helps in the preparation of the ribosomes. Chromosomes: composed of DNA; contain the blueprint for life; number present ranges from 1 in some intestinal worms to hundreds in some ferns; humans have 23 pairs. Cell membrane:(plasma membrane): regulates movement of materials into and out of cell. Cytoplasm: everything outside the nucleus within the cell membrane; a complex solution including granules, droplets, rod-like and threadlike bodies and membranes. Endoplasmic reticulum: membrane system for the movement of various materials in the cell; the site of chemical reactions; sometimes lined with ribosomes. Ribosomes: site of protein synthesis. Golgi Bodies: membrane system formed of flattened sacs; prepares and packages materials to be used in the cell Lysosomes: sacs of digestive enzymes that are involved in intracellular digestion; abundant in lung tissue, where they act as scavengers, ingesting and digesting "worn out" cell parts Mitochondrion: power house of the cell; site of cellular respiration; ATP molecules made here for storage of energy. Centriole: bundle of microtubules used in mitosis. Microtubules: found throughout the cell; aid in movement of organelles, cell movement, maintenance of cell shape; make up cilia and flagella 16.) know the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells Plant cells are much like animal cells except for 3 differences. 1.) Plant cells have cell walls, which make them appear rectangular-shaped. These structures are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and a variety of other materials. 2.) Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment is contained in structures called chloroplasts, which makes plants appear green. 3.) Plants cells have a large, central vacuole. While animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles, they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole does (up to 90% of the entire cell volume!). The vacuole stores water and ions, and may be used for storage of toxins. 17.) know the similarities and differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells Differences: Please refer to the answer on question #2 (Main difference: Prokaryotic cells have no nuclei, while eukaryotic cells do have true nuclei) Similarities: They perform most of the same kinds of functions, and in the same ways. Both are enclosed by plasma membranes, filled with cytoplasm, and loaded with small structures called ribosomes. Both have DNA which carries the archived instructions for operating the cell, and much more 18.) know what DNA is, and major characteristics (structure, function, electrical charge, etc.) - DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; contains all necessary information to direct cell Reproduction and other processes. - DNA is a complex molecule composed of two chains connected to one another in a ladder-like fashion and twisted to form a double helix. - DNA is negatively charged - There are 4 bases: adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. 19.) know who determined the structure of DNA. James Watson and Francis Crick 20.) know what the Scientific Method is, what it is used for, and the steps involved. A set of procedures that form a rational approach to studying the world. It's a way to solve problem. Steps involved: 1.) problem statement. 2.) gathering data/facts 3.) hypothesis 4.) testing/experiments 5.) conclusion/explanation 6.) (optional) theory 21.) know the stages of mitosis ( asexual reproduction) what takes place during each step. Also know the differences from meiosis regarding: number of divisions; resulting daughter cells; etc. The process of mitosis is divided into 6 stages. 1.) Interphase: DNA has replicated, but has not formed the condensed structure of chromosome. They remain as loosely coiled chromatin. 2.) Prophase: The DNA molecules progressively shorten and condense by coiling, to form chromosomes. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus are no longer visible. 3.) Metaphase: The spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromeres of the chromosomes and align the chromosomes at the equatorial plate. 4.) Anaphase: The spindle fibers shorten and the centromere splits, separated sister chromatids are pulled along behind the centromeres. 5.) Telophase: The chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles. Nuclear envelope reform before the chromosomes uncoil. The spindle fibers disintegrate 6.) Cytokinasis: It is the process of splitting the daughter cells apart. A furrow forms and the cell is pinched in two. Each daughter cell contains the same number and same quality of chromosomes. 22.) know the stages of meiosis (sexual reproduction) what takes place during each step. also know the differences from mitosis regarding: number of divisions; resulting daughter cells; etc. 1.) Interphase: A.) G1 phase: The period prior to the synthesis of DNA. In this phase, the cell increases in mass in preparation for cell division. B.) S phase: The period during which DNA is synthesized. C.) G2 phase: The period after DNA synthesis has occurred but prior to the start of prophase. The cell synthesizes proteins and continues to increase in size 2.) Prophase I: Chromosomes condense and attach to the nuclear envelope. Synapsis occurs (a pair of homologous chromosomes lines up closely together) and a tetrad is formed. Each tetrad is composed of four chromatids. 3.) Metaphase I: Tetrads align at the metaphase plate. Note that the centromeres of homologous chromosomes are oriented toward the opposite cell poles. 4.) Anaphase I: Chromosomes move to the opposite cell poles. Similar to mitosis, the microtubules and the kinetochore fibers interact to cause the movement. Unlike in mitosis, the homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles yet the sister chromatids remain together. 5.) Telophase I: The spindles continue to move the homologous chromosomes to the poles. Once movement is complete, each pole has a haploid number of chromosomes. 6.) Prophase II: The nuclear membrane and nuclei break up while the spindle network appears. Chromosomes do not replicate any further in this phase of meiosis. The chromosomes begin migrating to the metaphase II plate (at the cell's equator). 7.) Metaphase II: The chromosomes line up at the metaphase II plate at the cell's center. The kinetochores of the sister chromatids point toward opposite poles. 8.) Anaphase II: The sister chromatids separate and move toward the opposite cell poles. 9.) Telophase II:Distinct nuclei form at the opposite poles and cytokinesis occurs. At the end of meiosis II, there are four daughter cells each with one half the number of chromosomes of the original parent c l. 23.) Terms: fertilization; gamete; homologous chromosomes; tetrad; zygote Fertilization: he joining of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg). Gamete: A sex cell; a sperm or egg. Homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes that pair at meiosis, having the same structure and loci. Tetrad: he structure that results when two replicated homologous chromosomes pair during prophase I of meiosis; tetrad refers to the fact that the structure contains 4 chromatids. Zygote: Cell formed by the union of egg and sperm. 24.) know the definition of cancer, and what are some of the causes, risks, treatments, etc. associated with it. Cancer: a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells Causes: cigarettes, environmental conditions, industrial products, radiation, etc. Risks: you could die or become very sick and weak. Treatments: chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic drugs, surgery, radiation, immunotherapy, etc. 25.) know the stages of cancer: initiation, promotion, metastasis, etc. and what happens at each stage. INITIATION- A cancer causing agent (carcinogen) induces normal cells to become cancerous. Permanent damage to DNA. PROMOTION - Cells are stimulated to undergo uncontrolled growth (division). Cells are no longer subject to the body's normal controls on cell division. Tumor Formation - Abnormally dividing cells form a mass called a "tumor". METASTASIS - Cancer cells enter the blood and lymph systems and are carried throughout the body. New cancers appear far from the original initiation site. Cancer is now considered "advanced". Death 26.) Terms: contact inhibition, proliferation, tumor, carcinogen, malignant, benign Contact inhibition: Contact inhibition is the process of arresting cell growth or locomotion when two or more cells come into contact with each other. Proliferation: To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells or offspring. Tumor: An abnormal overgrowth of cells Carcinogen: A cancer causing agent Malignant: dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth Benign: not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive 27.) know the 7 warning signs of cancer as outlined in the lab manual (pg. 3.8) 1) change in bowel or bladder habits 2) a sore that does not heal 3) unusual bleeding or discharge 4) thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere 5) indigestion or difficulty swallowing 6) obvious change in wart or mole 7) nagging cough or hoarseness 28.) know the structure and function of DNA DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; It is a double helix. It contains all necessary information to direct cell reproduction and other processes 29.) know the structure and function of RNA It is a ribonucleic acid. RNA synthesizes (makes) these proteins using the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell. It is single stranded. 30.) know the similarities and differences between RNA and DNA RNA-single stranded, ribose sugar (in sugar phosphatebackbone), bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, functions in protein synthesis DNA- double stranded deoxyribose sugar (in sugar phosphate backbone),bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, functions in directing cell processes 31.) review the gel electrophoresis lab and how electrophoresis works, characteristics of DNA, applications of electrophoresis, etc. gel electrophoresis separates an individual's DNA fragments from one another according to size. An electric current repels a mixture of the negatively-charged DNA fragments thru microscopic pores in the gel from the negative to the positive electrode. Upon completion, the separated fragments of DNA can be visualized as a ladder of small bands in the gel by staining with a methylene blue dye solution. Characteristics of DNA: please refer to the answer for # 18 32.) know the Goals of The Human Genome Project 1.) to determine the complete sequence of the 3 billion chemical bases that make up human DNA. 2.) to identify all of the approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome. 3.) to store this information in publicly accessible databases. 4.) to develop faster, more efficient sequencing tools and technologies. 5.) to address the legal, ethical, and social issues that arise from the project. 33.) know the Potential Benefits of The Human Genome Project improvements in the diagnosis and early detection of genetic and other diseases the development of gene therapies and "custom drugs" improved matching of organ donors and recipients improvements in DNA forensic techniques identification of crime and disaster victims improved techniques to establish paternity development of disease, insect, and drought-resistant crops identification of endangered and protected animal and plant species 34.) know the Potential Drawbacks of The Human Genome Project - Who controls, and can access your genetic information? - How will genetic information be used? would you want insurance companies, employers, schools, or law enforcement to have access to your genetic profile? - Would you approve of "genetic enhancement" of children, using gene therapy to supply certain characteristics to your offspring? - Would these types of technology be available to everyone ($$)? - What is the potential for Genetic Discrimination? - How would it affect the diversity of the human race? 35.) What is genetics? The field of science that looks at how traits are passed down from one generation to another, through the genes. 36.) Terms: DNA; chromosome; homologous chromosome; gene; allele; dominant; recessive; co-dominance; incomplete dominance; homozygous; heterozygous; genotype; phenotype; sex-linked inheritance; multiple allelism; gamete; DNA: The material inside the nucleus of cells that carries genetic information. The scientific name for DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid. Chromosome: A visible carrier of the genetic information. homologous chromosome: Chromosome containing the same linear gene sequences as another, each derived from one parent gene: The basic unit of inheritance. A gene is a segment of DNA that specifies the structure of a protein or an RNA molecule. Allele: Alternate forms of a gene. Dominant: an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different Recessive: a gene that does not express its instructions when paired with a dominant gene. It's also a gene that only produces its affect when both copies present are identical. co-dominance: A circumstance where the two alleles (or genes) for a specific trait are equally strong: a mixture of the two phenotypes results incomplete dominance: A gene action in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is different from either homozygote, and is usually intermediate between them. Homozygous: Having two identical alleles of a particular gene Heterozygous: A genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype: Observable characterisics of an organism sex-linked inheritance: A characteristic in which the mutant allele is carried on the sex chromosome and is governed by the sex of the gene. multiple allelism: The existence of several known alleles of a gene. Gamete: A sex cell; a sperm or egg. zygote: A cell formed by the union of two gametes 37.) be able to do genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses (USING A PUNNETT SQUARE), also be able to determine parental genotypes, possible gamete types, ratios, and probabilities. The punnett square is a tool used to help predict the results of genetic crosses. I could explain how to do this, however it would be a very long process and you will probably understand more if you just read the manual. Please refer to page 4 in your Genetics and Human Heredity Manual if you have any problems. 38.) be able to do (genetics) problems involving sex-linked traits and human blood typing. This is a special type of linkage. Sex linked genes are carried either on the X or the Y chromosome. They may display different phenotypic ratios when inherited by a male or female offspring. An example would be color blindness. Human blood typing is the process of trying to determine the blood type of a human (A, B, AB, O) Again, I apologize if I cannot explain this process. It would take too long and the book would prove to be a better source for the correct way to carry out these problems. Please refer to page 17 in your Genetics and Human Heredity Manual. 39.) review the human ABO blood system (antigens, antibodies, agglutination, etc.) Blood types are determined by the presence (or absence) of specific markers, called antigens, on the surface of blood cells. AA and AO have A antigen. BB and BO have B antigen. AB has both A and B antigens. OO has no antigens on the cell surface. Blood is composed of two parts: blood cells, and the liquid portion called plasma. Plasma contains antibodies which are part of the immune system. Antibodies recognize and attach to foreign antigens in the blood and cause clumping of blood cells. This clumping is called agglutination. 40.) review the genetic disorders (causes, etc) outlined in the lab manual Down's Syndrome (trisomy 21) Cystic Fibrosis (Autosomal recessive) Achondroplasia (Dwarfism) (autosomal dominant) Sickle Cell Anemia (autosomal co-dominant) Muscular Dystrophy (sex-linked) 41.) know the processes of: gametogenesis; spermatogenesis; and oogenesis, and what happens during these processes. Gametogenesis: Gametes are the products of meiosis and are produced through a process called gametogenesis Spermatogenesis- takes place in the testes, results in the production of sperm, begins at puberty. Oogenesis- takes place in the ovaries and results in the production of eggs, begins before birth and continues at puberty 42.) review male and female reproductive anatomy Male anatomy consists of: penis, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowper's gland, and ejaculatory ducts. Female anatomy consists of: ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and cervix. 43.) be able to trace the path of sperm through the male reproductive system Testes epidemis seminal vesicles vas deferens prostate gland cowper's gland urethra outside world 44.) be able to trace the path of eggs through the female reproductive system Ovary fallopian tubes uterus cervix vagina 45.) know the female hormonal cycle for ovulation (menstruation) and which hormones are released/ suppressed during various parts of the cycle; FSH and LH (pituitary), Estrogens and progesterone (ovarian) The menstrual cycle is controlled by interactions of hormones from the brain and reproductive organs. The pituitary gland (in the brain) releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The ovary releases estrogen and progesterone. Early in the cycle, levels of estrogen and progesterone are low. FSH and LH levels increase, causing maturation of an egg. FSH and LH levels continue to increase and midway through the cycle, an abrupt increase in LH causes the follicle to burst and release the egg (called ovulation). The "empty" follicle is now called corpus luteum, which releases progesterone. The combination of estrogen and progesterone blocks FSH and LH and no more eggs are released. 46.) know the difference between identical (monozygotic), and fraternal (dizygotic) twins Identical twins result when the early divisions of a fertilized egg (by mitosis), splits into two separate individuals. These twins are from the same egg and are genetically identical. Fraternal twins are the result of the fertilization of two separate eggs. Fraternal twins are not genetically identical and have the same relation as ordinary brother and sisters. 47.) know that the first trimester of pregnancy (the vulnerable period) is a time that unhealthy actions may cause defects in an unborn child The question answers itself. 48.) know the various categories/ types of contraceptives: barriers, spermicides, IUD, hormonal methods, natural methods and sterilization. be able to give examples of each type. Barriers: condoms, diaphragm, cervical cap Spermicides: creams, jellies, foams, suppositories IUD: (Intrauterine device) it's a metal/plastic device inserted and left inside uterus. IUC: (Intrauterine contraceptive) it's similar to IUD, it's smaller Hormonal methods: birth control pills, seasonale, contraceptive patch natural methods: rhythm, temperature sterilization: vasectomy, tubal litigation 49.) know the STDs outlined in the lab manual, their causes, treatments, methods of protection, risk factors, etc. Look for the answers below 50.) Viral STDs (HIV, venereal warts, herpes II, hepatitis b, hpv) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Cause: HIV virus Symptoms: destruction of immune system; symptoms vary widely but may include flu-like symptoms, fatigue, extreme weight loss, severe and recurrent infections. Treatment: NO CURE, drugs used to slow disease (AZT, ddI, and ddC), FATAL. Venereal Warts: (genital warts) Cause: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Symptoms: clusters of fleshy swellings on or around genital organs, may be painful and itchy. Treatment: NO CURE, drug therapy, acid removal, surgical removal, infection often reappears. Vaccine recently approved and available (Gardasil). Herpes Simplex II: (genital herpes) Cause: Herpes type II virus Symptoms: burning sensation at infection site, followed by painful sores or blisters (can be in clusters). Treatment: NO CURE, drugs used to alleviate pain and control sores. Hepatitis B: Cause: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Symptoms: liver damage, nausea, abdominal pain, fever, jaundice. Treatment: NO CURE, preventable by vaccine, vaccine only effective in early stages. 60.) Bacterial STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis) Chlamydia: Cause: Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium Symptoms: unusual discharge, painful urination. If left untreated can lead to other serious problems, such as sterility, pelvic inflammatory disease, infections, etc. Women often show few or no symptoms. Treatment: treatable / curable with anti-biotics. Gonorrhea: Cause: Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium Symptoms: unusual discharge, painful urination. If left untreated can lead to other serious problems, such as sterility and pelvic inflammatory disease. Women often show few or no symptoms. Treatment: treatable / curable with anti-biotics. Syphilis: Cause: Treponema pallidum bacterium Symptoms: 3 stages; stage 1: appearance of painless chancre sores in genital area, very contagious; stage 2: severe skin rash anywhere on the body,often on hands and feet, fever, fatigue; LATENT PHASE; No symptoms stage 3: destructive lesions on body, damage to nervous system, heart, brain and other organs; physical damage is not reversible. Can cause death if left untreated. Treatment: treatable / curable with anti-biotics. 61.) Other STDs (crabs, scabies) Pubic Lice a.k.a. Crabs: Cause: lice; species: Phthirus pubis (on the surface of the skin) Symptoms: intense pubic itching and irritation, mild fever. Treatment: treatable / curable with topical treatments applied to the skin. Scabies Cause: a female mite; species: Sarcoptes scabiei (burrows under the skin to lay eggs). symptoms: severe pubic itching and irritation, especially at night. treatment: treatable / curable with topical treatments applied to the skin. 62.) know the parts and functions of the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS); and what body functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS): composed of the brain & spinal cord. The nervous system is able to make basic motor skills and other skills possible. The basic 5 senses of texture, taste, sight, smell, and hearing are powered by the nervous system. If disabled, basic motor skills may be lost. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS): nerves that connect the CNS to all other parts of the body, such as muscles, internal organs, sense organs, etc., relay information to and from the CNS AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS): ANS controls functions not normally under conscious control - heart rate, breathing, temperature, hormonal regulation, your fight or flight system 63.) know the parts of the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain and their functions - The forebrain is composed of the hypothalamus, the thalamus, and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus controls the body's internal environment, such as temperature, thirst, and sleep. The thalamus serves as a relay station from the PNS to the cerebrum, which controls consciousness and thought processes. - The midbrain is relatively small and functions mainly as an information relay for sensory and motor information. - The hindbrain is composed of the medulla oblongata, and the cerebellum. The medulla oblongata works with the spinal cord in controlling life support functions such as heart rate and breathing. The cerebellum serves to coordinate body movement. 64.) know the parts of a nerve cell (neuron) (fig. 11.3), know what role the parts play in nerve impulse transmission and know the direction of impulse transmission through a neuron. A neuron (nerve cell) consists of a cell body with many thin branches called dendrites. A neuron also has a long, thin portion called an axon, which has many branches and transmits signals to the dendrites and cell bodies of other neurons. Axons are often covered with a layer of fatty insulation known as a myelin sheath. At the point where an axon from one nerve cell contacts a dendrite from another, there is a very small gap called a synapse. 65.) how do nerve impulses cross the synapse? Nerve impulses, which can be detected as electric current, travel one-way along the axon of a neuron and cause special chemicals, called neurotransmitters, to be released into the synapse. Neurotransmitters are contained in vesicles at the ends of axons. 66.) know the differences between drug use, drug abuse, and drug addiction DRUG USE: Using any drug for any purpose...medical, preventative or recreational... DRUG ABUSE: The use of the drug alters ones ability to carry out normal functions, harmful effects outweigh beneficial ones DRUG ADDICTION: Physical addiction occurs when the user's body requires the drug for normal function. Without the drug, severe physical symptoms (withdrawal) occur. Psychological addiction occurs when the user requires the drug for normal behavioral function. 67.) know the various types of drugs (Narcotics, psychedelics, stimulants, depressants) and their effects, and give examples of each. Narcotics: Induce sleep or drowsiness. Narcotics bind to receptor sites and block the action of neurotransmitters. Examples; Morphine, Heroin, Opium, Codeine, and Various other Rx Opiates Psychedelic Drugs (Hallucinogens) Alter the user's perception of reality. Psychedelic drugs greatly increase the release of neurotransmitters. Examples; LSD, PCP, "Magic" Mushrooms, Mescaline and Marijuana. Stimulants Result in overall stimulation of certain areas of the nervous system. Stimulants work in one of two ways, either by enhancing excitatory neurotransmitters or by blocking inhibitory neurotransmitters. Examples; Amphetamines, Cocaine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Ecstasy, Ritalin, Caffeine, and nicotine. Depressants Result in the slowing or depression of certain areas of the nervous system. Depressants also work in one of two ways, either by enhancing inhibitory neurotransmitters or by blocking excitatory neurotransmitters. Examples; Barbiturates, Alcohol, Rohypnol (roofies), GHB, Valium, Xanax, Quaaludes 68.) know which organ works to detoxify the blood of alcohol. what does BAC mean?? Your liver and kidneys helps detoxify the alcohol in your blood. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream. 69.) review the anatomy of the human digestive system The anatomy of the human digestive system consists of over 25 organs. However, the mains ones are mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. 70.) be able to trace the path of food through the digestive system (pathway from mouth to anus) Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Anus 71.) know the major enzymes present in the digestive system and the nutrients that they act upon. Amylase: breaks down starch into simple sugars Pepsin: breaks down proteins into smaller, usable units. Bile: breaks down fats into smaller molecules. 72.) know the 3 accessory organs (liver, pancreas, gall bladder) involved with the small intestine and what they do. Pancreas: secretes a complete set of digestive enzymes into the small intestine and also secretes sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes the acidic mixture from the stomach and activates digestive enzymes. Liver: produces Gall Bladder: stores bile. 73.) Know that the site of major food absorption and breakdown is in the small intestine. The question answers itself. The small intestine is the major site of food degradation and absorption of food and water molecules. 74.) know the "energy nutrients" (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) and the products of protein, fat and carbohydrate breakdown. (amino acids, fatty acids, and simple sugars) The energy nutrients are: proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Proteins break down into amino acids. Fats breaks down into fatty acids (lipids). Carbohydrates break down into simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. 75.) review weight control concerns & eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia) Your body requires a certain number of calories each day to function properly. To maintain your weight - match your calorie intake to calories needed. To lose weight - reduce caloric intake slightly below calories needed and increase physical activity. To gain weight - increase caloric intake slightly above calories needed. Eating disorders are illnesses that affect how we eat, how we feel about food, and ourselves. Anorexia nervosa: Extreme misperception of body weight and shape, and refusal to maintain a normal body weight Intense and irrational fear of body fat and weight gain, even if underweight Avoids food and meals May exercise excessively Taking laxatives, diuretics, or enemas to rid the body of food is also common Bulimia nervosa (Binge & Purge): Intake of an excessive amount of food in a single episode Immediately make themselves vomit May use laxatives or diuretics 76.) review the anatomy of the human circulatory system and heart (fig 10.1): left and right atria, left and right ventricles, septum, valves, inferior & superior vena cava, pulmonary arteries & veins, aorta, etc. - The Left and Right Atria are the top two chambers. These are small receiving chambers where the blood enters the heart. - The Left and Right Ventricles are the bottom two chambers. These are larger chambers which pump the blood away from the heart. - The Septum is a solid wall that separates the heart into a left and right side. - The valve allows blood to travel from atrium to ventricle. - Blood enters the right atrium via the superior and inferior vena cava from the upper and lower parts of the body respectively. - When the right ventricle contracts, it goes thru the pulmonary artery and then to the lungs. - Oxygenated blood goes to the heart via the pulmonary veins and into the left atrium. - The aorta is the largest artery leaving the heart. All blood pumped out of the left ventricle travels through the aorta on its way to other parts of the body. 77.) be able to trace the path of blood flow through the heart, including; valves, direction of blood flow, and where blood is oxygenated or deoxygenated Sup. and Infer. Vena Cava---> Right Atrium ---> Tricuspid valve ---> Right ventricle ---> Pulmonary arteries ---> Lungs ---> Pulmonary veins ---> Left Atrium ---> Bicuspid valve ---> Left ventricle ---> Aorta ---> Body 78.) know the various types of blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) and their functions Arteries are muscular, elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart Veins return blood to the heart. Capillaries are microscopically small vessels that contact the body's cells, exchanging nutrients, oxygen, and water. 79.) know the Components of blood: red blood cells (oxygen), plasma (fluid component), and white blood cells (immune response) Red blood cells carries oxygen. White blood cells which help fight against diseases and help the immune system Plasma which is a fluid-like substance. 80.) know what blood pressure is: diastolic and systolic. A complete heartbeat consists of a period of muscle contraction known as systole, and a period of muscle relaxation known as diastole. 81.) review info on diseases such as; heart attack, stroke, hypertension (high blood pressure), atherosclerosis, rheumatic fever Heart Attacks; often characterized by symptoms such as: acute chest pain, sometimes spreading to the arms and neck; nausea; sweating; dizziness; and shortness of breath. An individual who is having a heart attack needs prompt medical attention or they may die (20% of heart attacks are fatal). Heart attacks can be caused by Atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and a variety of other causes. Strokes; occur when the blood supply to the brain is blocked by a blood clot, a tumor, or cerebral hemorrhage. A traveling blood clot called an embolus, can lodge in the brain or neck, and can also cause a stroke. Symptoms of a stroke may include dizziness; double vision; and frequent, severe headaches. The most typical symptom of a stroke is the paralysis of one side of the body (aka. unilateral paralysis) which is called hemiplegia, and loss of speech. High Blood Pressure; also called hypertension. 1 in 6 people in the U.S. have high blood pressure. High Blood Pressure causes the heart to work harder than normal, and may cause the arteries to harden or become less elastic. High Blood Pressure can lead to many problems such as heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. It is treatable through diet changes and/or medication. Atherosclerosis; a progressive disease characterized by deposits of fat, calcium, and other material on the walls of the arteries. These deposits can build up and clog the arteries, blocking blood flow. The hardening of fat deposits can result in the formation of plaques. These plaques can break up, travel through the bloodstream, and result in blood clots called thrombus. If a clot blocks an artery of the heart, a heart attack, called coronary thrombosis may occur. Rheumatic Fever; usually occurs in children of 5 to 15 years of age. Can cause serious damage to the heart muscle and valves. Rheumatic Fever is always preceded by a streptococcal infection (sore throat, swollen glands in the throat, and fever) and can be treated with antibiotics. 82.) review risk factors for cardiac disease / problems: genetics, diet (obesity), diabetes, hypertension, exercise, smoking, etc Question answers itself. diet (obesity), diabetes, hypertension, exercise, and smoking, are all factors that can be controlled to prevent cardiac disease. Genetics is not controllable 83.) know the taxonomic hierarchy: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species The question answers itself. The order of the taxonomic hierarchy is: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species 84.) know the Characteristics of ALL animals: eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, and capable of locomotion The question answers itself. The characteristics of all animals are that they are: eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, and capable of Locomotion 85.) know the following criteria used to classify an organism: level of organization, (cellular level, tissue level, organ level); symmetry, digestive tract, (none, incomplete, complete); segmentation, skeleton (exoskeleton, endoskeleton, hydrostatic skeleton), unique features. The question answers itself. The following criteria is used to classify an organism: 1.) level of organization, (cellular level, tissue level, organ level); 2.) symmetry, 3.) digestive tract, (none, incomplete, complete); 4.) segmentation, 5.) skeleton (exoskeleton, endoskeleton, hydrostatic skeleton), 6.) unique features. 86.) know the 9 major animal phyla (Porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, arthropoda, mollusca, echinodermata, chordata) The question answers itself. The main 9 major animal phyla are as follows: Porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, arthropoda, mollusca, echinodermata, and chordata 87.) know the characteristics of each phyla. (chart - pg. 12.16), know some examples from each phyla. Please refer to the chart on page 12.16 in your lab manual. You guys did this already in class. 88.) know the general structure of a fungi (mycelium, hyphae, fruiting body) and some examples. The majority of the fungal body is called a mycelium. The mycelium is made up of a mesh of tiny filaments called hyphae, and lies on or within the substrate (such as the ground) where it is often hidden from view. The fruiting body is the reproductive structure of a fungus. An example would be a parasitic fungi and a saprophytic fungi. 89.) review plant / flower anatomy and the function involved with each part. The typical plant body is made up of three main specialized parts: the root, the stem, and the leaf. Leaves: photosynthesis Stem: supports the plants and transports nutrients and water. Root: nutrient uptake and anchorage. 90.) know the equation for photosynthesis. The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 12H20 ---------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O 91.) know the major groups of the plant kingdom: algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms and know characteristics and differences of each. be able to give examples. Algae: they rely on the presence of water for all life functions, including reproduction. They are characterized by a relatively undifferentiated plant-like body with no true leaves, stems, or roots. Additionally, there is no special system for transporting gases, water, nutrients, or wastes. Examples: red algae, brown algae. Moss: are simple land plants that generally grow very low to the ground. They do not have true leaves, roots, stems or specialized vascular tissues. Moss has primitive leaf-like structures for photosynthesis and root-like extensions called rhizoids which absorb water and minerals. Moss are dependent on the presence of external water for many life functions and usually found near the edges of bodies of water or other moist habitats. Example: peat moss, liverworts. Ferns: Ferns are seedless, vascular plants and represent a major advance in the occupation of land by plants. Ferns and have specialized vascular tissues xylem and phloem. Ferns have true leaves and stems and also have rhizomes, underground stems that give rise to adventitious roots. The leaves of ferns, called fronds, are highly divided and are covered with a waxy cuticle to aid in the conservation of water. These (and other) advances allow vascular plants to grow much larger than more primitive plants and colonize environments farther from water. Examples: holly ferns, moonwart Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are the first group of plants to produce seeds. The production of seeds is a tremendous advance for land plants. The outer coating of seeds protects the embryo, allows for storage of food, and can allow the embryo to lie dormant until conditions are most favorable for continued development. Gymnosperm means "naked seed". The seeds are exposed to the environment and are usually held in cones. Examples: Conifers, Cycads, and Ginkgos Angiosperms: Angiosperms are flowering plants and are the most advanced, successful, and abundant plants on Earth. They have highly developed roots, stems, and leaves, as well as a highly efficient system of vascular tissues. Characteristic of angiosperms is the production of reproductive parts in flowers and enclosed seeds. The production of flowers has many advantages over more primitive methods of reproduction. Angiosperms do not need to rely on wind alone for the distribution of pollen (as gymnosperms do). Examples: monocots, dicots. 92.) know the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms Please refer to the answer above. 93.) know the differences between monocots and dicots. Monocots: One cotyledon (seed leaf) Leaf veins in parallel pattern Flower parts in 3's or multiples of 3 Vascular bundles scattered in stem Fibrous (adventitious) roots. Dicots: Two cotyledons (seed leaves) Leaf veins in net like pattern Flower parts in 4's or 5's or multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles form a ring in stem Tap root 94.) review what you learned at the cypress swamp bio-magnification, tannic acid, fire ecology; sinkholes; etc. Please refer to the worksheet you guys did at the cypress swamp. 95.) review the animal facts you learned at the cypress swamp: habitat; carnivore, herbivore or omnivore; mate for life?; active in day or night? (nocturnal or diurnal); endangered? Please refer to the worksheet you guys did at the cypress swamp. 96.) what is Ecology? The study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment. 97.) review the biology hierarchy. (figure 14.1) - organism, population, community, ecosystem, Biosphere The biological hierarchy goes from smallest to biggest: organism, population, community, ecosystem, and Biosphere Organism: animals and the like. Population: A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species within a specific environment, which are adapted to a particular way of life within that environment. Community: groups of species or populations living in the same area or habitat which interact and are dependent on one another (food web relationships) Ecosystem: a community and the environment in which the species live and interact. Biosphere - the earth (living sphere) 98.) review the importance of nutrient cycling i.e., the amounts of nutrients (such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water) on earth is essentially fixed. Only through "recycling" of nutrients by is life able to continue. The question answers itself. The amounts of nutrients (such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water) on earth is essentially fixed. Only through "recycling" of nutrients by is life able to continue. 99.) review effects of pollution and habitat destruction, (caused mainly by humans) and the importance of habitat preservation & extinction prevention Most of the pollution and habitat destruction caused by humans has its effect at the level of the ecosystems. Pollution would be like dumping garbage into the sea, or excess carbon monoxide from automobiles. Habitat destruction can come in 2 forms: Habitat Loss: A complete loss of an area suitable for organisms. And Habitat Fragmentation: The breaking up of a suitable area into pieces. 100.) Terms: flora; fauna; biotic factors; abiotic factors; carnivore; herbivore; omnivore; detritivore; adaptation to the environment Flora: the plant life in a particular region or period Fauna: all the animal life in a particular region or period biotic factors: any living member of the environment, such as animals, plants, bacteria, etc. carnivore: An organism that eats meat. Herbivore: any organism that eats only plants Omnivore: any organism that eats both meat and plants. Detritivore: An organism that derives nutrients and energy by consuming decaying organic matter adaptation to the environment: adapting to your environment, whether it be evolving or just adjusting to your surroundings to improve your survival. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BSC 1005L taught by Professor Jasonclark during the Spring '08 term at FSU.
- Spring '08