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WATER SCARCITY.docx - THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER AVAILABILITY...

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THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER AVAILABILITY AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIESIN EKITI STATE, NIGERIAIntroductionWater is imperative for the survival of humans and ecosystems, as well as forsocioeconomic growth and development (Adamu, 2017). Nigeria aspires to achieve 100% accessto water supplies by 2030, as the population hits 257.8 million people, in compliance with theUnited Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Adamu, 2017). According to availablefigures, in 2015, 69 % of the population had access to improved water sources (Adamu, 2017),whereas only 2 % of the Nigerian population had access to piped water (Adamu, 2017);(Adebowale, 2017). Water supply has dropped from 14 % in 1990 (World Health Organization(WHO, 1990); United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2010). Water scarcity is described asthe lack of a consistent supply of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health,livelihoods, and productivity, along with an inability to access it. Access to safe drinking water isone of the most basic human requirements and a necessity for health and sustainability(Schirding, 2001; Oyebodeet al.,2018).Household connection, public standpipe, bore hole, protected dug well, protected spring,and rain water collection were identified as improved water sources by the World HealthOrganization (WHO, 2004) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund(UNICEF) (2004), while unimproved sources included unprotected well, unprotected spring,river or pond, vendor-provided water, bottled water, and tanker-truck water. As a result of thefailure to provide safe water, a huge proportion of people have turned to potentially dangeroussources of water. For the billions of people trapped in a cycle of poverty and disease, theconsequences of this collective failure are bleak (Oyebodeet al.,2018). More than half of thehospital beds in the globe are filled with patients suffering from water-borne infections,according to Oyebodeet al.(2018). According to Oyebodeet al.(2018), polluted water isresponsible for around 80% of all infections and more than one-third of all deaths inimpoverished nations. It has been established that adequate supply of safe drinking water couldreduce the prevalence of various illnesses and deaths by up to 75% (Oyebodeet al.,2018).UNICEF and WHO (2004); (Oyebodeet al.,2018) observed that the quantity of water and the1
nearness of the supply point to the residential houses are more important than actual waterquality in improving health since the quantity collected from such distant source is likely to betoo minimal for effectual hygiene. According to studies, having clean water within a one-kilometer radius of one's home improves one's health since people use significantly more waterfor cleaning and washing Oyebodeet al.(2018). In Nigeria, a larger share of the population lacksaccess to potable water. Around 71 % of persons living in rural regions do not have access to safedrinking water, while only 42 % of those living in urban and semi-urban areas do (Ehinomenetal.,2018). Nigeria, on the other hand, has abundant surface and subterranean water resources.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Water supply, Drinking water, Waterborne diseases, Water crisis, Ekiti State

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