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Unformatted text preview: US Foreign Policy American Foreign Policy from 1947 to 1952 Basically went from isolationism to containment I. Pre WWII Policies A. Appeasement 1. give in and they will be nice 2. Peal Harbor New policy - Absolute Security Intelligence Showed the US was vulnerable B. Isolationanist 1. Don't go to war 2. People didn't want to go into the army = conscription Changes after WWII A. Major 1. No appeasement Munich 2. Security Pearl Harbor 3. Globalism B. American Social changes 1. Women in the work force 2. Brought US out of Great Depression 3. Mass Movement to big cities C. Political Changes 1. US was now a world power 2. US Foreign Policy = move towards world order D. World Changes 1. US now occupying Europe and involved in world affairs Move towards policy of GLOBALISM E. Foreign Policy 1. Rebuilding - Marshall Plan (add other OUTLINE) - Reconstruction of European economy - Help contain communism 2. Humanitarian Issues 3. 2 things that made an impact in policy - Munich- appeasement didn't work against aggressive government - Pearl Harbor Syndrome- didn't expect it/ need to prepare on a attack - Created a sense of insecurity and increase US's obsession with security and preparedness 4. Globalism = world politics - US a world power F. Scientific Changes 1. The Atom bomb 2. New and more powerful weapons a. Lead to new power and power to blackmail II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Iron Curtain A. 1945- There was a misinformation because the soviet society didn't know a lot and because of this it was a closed society. B. Against Capitalism C. Foreign Policy 1. What to do? 2. What are their capabilities? 3. What are they saying? 4. Communism In parts of the world - China- aggressively= fell to communism in 1945 - Turkey and Greece - Northern Iran 5. Soviets got bomb info Latin America Policies A. Fight communism in Latin America 1. Rio Treaty 2. Ideological link 3. Communism was a way to make things better B. Anti-Americanism 1950's 1. Religion was different Catholics vs. protestants 2. Corporations - anti- capitalism= okay for state to run businesses = basis of modern fascism - Military dictatorships NATO/ Warsaw Pact A. Collective Security 1. US formally committed to western Europe 2. Soviet Bloc answered with failed Warsaw Pact 3. Soviets did not realize that the nature of actions shifted from power and force to stabilbility, security, and preparedness Arms Race ( 1949) A. Soviets developed atomic bomb after success of bomb of Hiroshima B. US develops hydrogen bomb, followed by Soviets 1952 C. Emphasized point of obsolesce of weapons Security / Red Scare A. Red scare 1948 a. Truman recognizes government agency for intelligence and military purpose. b. Committee formed to weed out Soviet Spies B. National Security Act recognized the department of defense a. Go set up defense department just war department i. Got a Navy, Air force, Army Secretary b. CIA i. New intelligence agency was created ii. NSA- national security agency iii. DIA- defense intelligence agency 1. Used to make more effective and informed decisions iv. National Security Council 1. they filter and sort out all the agencies intelligence 2. Council a. Secretary of defense b. Secretary of State v. FBI- internal security- counter intelligence vi. The Bomb = new source so power and security C. Cold War a. End of the Korean War b. Beginning of Vietnam War c. Chinese communist war/ together with Tiwaian d. End of Stalin e. Bilateral treaties against communism Timeline 1945 Rise to Globalization WWII ends, taught 2 lessons * Munich: appeasement doesn't work * Pearl Harbor: fallibility of the US US becomes gobal power US focuses on helping Europe though economic and humanitarian aid Truman Doctine Began with aid to Greece and Turkey to fight communism Marshall Plan European economic recovery Later, many European nations sign for Plan ( includeing Tito's Yugoslavia after he dismisses Soviet power) and Congress approves budget Kennan's Containment Policy Peacefully block expansion of Soveit political and economic influence around the world 1947 March June July Start of Cold War: 1947- 1952 Events 1938- House un-American Activities Committee created 1947- Doctrine of containment emerges Truman articulates Truman doctrine Congress pasess National security act 1948- Alger Hiss accused of being a Soviet spy. Truman reelected 1949-NATO is formed China falls to Communist forces 1952- U.S. developes first hydrogen bomb Containment In 1947, George F. Kennan penned a highly influential essay on the Soviet Union that transformed fear of the USSR into a cohesive foreign policy. Arguing the insecure Russians had always had the desire to expand and acquire territory, Kennan wrote that the Soviet Union would take every opportunity to spread communism into every possible " nook and cranny" around the globe, either by conquering neighboring countries or by subtly supporting Communist revolutionaries in politically unstable countries. Kennan also, wrote, however, that the U.S. could prevent the global domination of communism with a strategy of CONTIANMENT. He suggested maintaining the status quo by thwarting Communist aggression abroad. Kennan's containment doctrine reapidly became the root of the dominat U.S. strategy for fighting Communism throughtout the Cold War. Truman Doctrine Truman quickly latched onto the doctrine of containment and modified it with his own Truman Doctorine. In a special address to congress in March 1947, Truman announced that the U.S. would support foreign governments resisting "armed minorities" or " outside pressures" that is, communist revolutionaries or Soviet Union. He then convinced Congress to appropriate $400 million to prevent the fall of Greece and Turkey to Communist insurgents. Critics, both at the time and looking back in retrospect, have charged the Truman's adoption of eh contiament doctrine, couple with his own Truman Doctrine, accelerated the Cold War by polarizing the United States and the USSR unnecessarily. Many have claimed that the U.S. might have avoided fifty years of competition and mutual distrust had Truman sought a diplomatic solution instead. Defendents of Truman's policy, however, claime that the Soviet Union had already begun the Cold War by thwarting Allied attempts to reunite and stabilize Germany. Truman, they have argued, merely met the existing Soviet challenge. Other supporters believed that Truman used polarizing language in order to prevent U.S. isolationists from abandoning the cause in Europe. Whatever his motivations, Truman's adaptation of the containment doctrine and his characterization of the Communist threat shaped American foreign policy. Russia 1944-1947 Communist uprising in Greece Closed totalitarian society Took over China 1. CIA Central Intelligence Agency formed in 1947 with the signing of National Security act Collecting and analyzing information on foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policy makers Replaced the official strategic services (OSS) which was during WWII 2. NSA National Security Agency (1952) Responsible for collecting and analyzing foreign communications and signal intelligence and protecting US communications from foreign threat the stemmed from armed forces security agency (afsa) Responsible for communications between military branches Which involves a significant amount of crypt analysis 3. NSC National Security Council Established in 1947 Advises president on national security and foreign policy. Coordinates policies through various government arms 4. DOD Department of Defense (1947) federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government related to national security and the military. Combination of or navy and airforce departments to reduce rivalries. 5. FBI Federal bureau of investigation. (1908) as the bureau of investigations and primary goal to prevent foreign treath/ terrorism domestically and uphold US law. Handles domestic threats while CIA handles foreign 6. DIA Defense Intelligence Agency. (1961) major producers and manajer of military intelligence for the DOD. Info on development , resources, policies, foreign weapons systems. Created to facilitate communication of intelligence between military branches. 7. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (1949) to make systems of collective defense in that when one member attaked by an external force all other act in mutual defense. Became one of two sides in cold war. The communist one being Warsaw pact. 8. SEATO South East Asia Organization. (1954-1977) Created to defende south east asia from communist take over. It is the south east version of NATO but less centralized and cohesive included Australia France and New Zeland. Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, UK and USA. 9. CENTO (1955-1979) It included Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, UK. USA could not join at first because of budjeting issues. But joined in 1958. Set up to block USSR advance in Middle East. Like SEATO in organization leap-frogged and moved into northern Africa . By 1970 they were very well established. The Iranian revolution marked the end in 1979. 10.ANZUS Australia New Zeland US security treaty. (1951) Cooperation on defense matters in pacific ocean. Today, understood to cover any attacks in any area. It resulted from Japan attack on New Zeland and Australia and need for US to rearm Japan in fighting Korean War. Disputes between New Zeland and USA on nuclear ships recently. 11.OAS Organization of American States established in 1951 but signed in 1948. Signed o ensure peace and justice, promote solidarity, territory integrity and independence of member states. Currently includes all 35 indipendent nations of the Americas excluding French Guyana, Cuba suspended. 12.NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command 1958 Goal: provide info and defense of long range ballistic or air-based threats against North America. Founded after threats of USSR bombers and new nuclear weapons grew. Focused on Artic 13.SAC Strategic Air Command 1946-1992 Major command in air force charged with operations involving long-range bombers and ICBM weapons. Eliminated after collapse of Soviet Union. 14.JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff 1947 Combined committee of heads of all arms of US armed forces Presently charged with ensuring readiness, policy, planning, and training of respectful military service for combat command to use chairman acts as advisor for president and secretary of defense. ...
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- Spring '08