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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure - Materials Science and Engieering MIME...

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Materials Science and Engieering MIME 1650 Lecture 2 1 1 Chapter 2 - Reading: Sections 3.1 – 3.7 Homework Problems: 2.11, 2.19, 2.22 ANNOUNCEMENTS 2 Chapter 2 - ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding? CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES
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Materials Science and Engieering MIME 1650 Lecture 2 2 3 Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) atom – electrons 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons neutrons atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg 4 Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical
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Materials Science and Engieering MIME 1650 Lecture 2 3 5 Chapter 2 - Nucleus: Z = # protons orbital electrons: n = principal quantum number n=3 2 1 = 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium N = # neutrons Atomic mass A Z + N Adapted from Fig. 2.1, Callister 6e. BOHR ATOM 6 Chapter 2 - Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. – This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. – Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (- l to + l ) m s = spin ½, -½
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Materials Science and Engieering MIME 1650 Lecture 2 4 7 Chapter 2 - Electron Energy States 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons... Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister 7e. 8 Chapter 2 - PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE Each electron state can hold no more than two electrons, each with opposite spins. (i.e. No pairs of electrons can have exactly the same state: Electrons in the same orbital must have different spins) s, p, d, f subshells can accommodate 2, 6, 10 and 14 electrons respectively
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Materials Science and Engieering MIME 1650 Lecture 2 5 9 Chapter 2 - GROUND STATE Atom is in its ground state when all electrons occupy lowest possible energies ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS
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