Crusades, Chivalry, Reform

Crusades, Chivalry, Reform - Hi Folks! Here is some...

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Hi Folks! Here is some background and help with some of our material for this week and beyond. We have material on the reform movement of the 10th-11th C. which leads to the crusades. We have two stages of chivalry: warrior chivalry , represented in the glorification of Christian knighthood in the Peace and Truce of God (Tierney pp. 114- 116) and especially in the first crusade; and--in contrast-- romantic chivalry --the "more evolved" courtly love tradition represented by "The Knight of the Cart" ( Lancelot ). Please read carefully material on chivalry, and notes in our xerox packet through p. 39a, plus 41a (we're mostly concerned with the "before" side), and 46--see the section on EPIC. Here's background help on the crusades: the First Crusade, 1095, preached and organized by Pope Urban II is our main concern. See the documents in Tierney: pp.114-116; 133-142; and 171-174 . Reading in Hollister Reader is listed on our syllabus and the homework sheet for week 10-11. The outline of material on the crusades is on XP. 37 , and make sure to look at the map on p, 37a showing Muslim expansion. The crusades have some connections to earlier wars of Charlemagne and Clovis and other kings who combined a desire for conquest and expansion with a Christianizing "missionary" zeal to convert the conquered. This gained them the support of the Church for their endeavors, and justification for these wars. For warrior kings such as Charlemagne Xty. was important because it helped him to unify and keep control over the conquered people and territories--you know, as we saw with the Saxons. Charlemagne's wars were fought in the West--i.e. "at home"--and in that sense they were more like defensive wars to protect the Church and Xtns.of the West. But this was not as true of the First Crusade, fought in Jerusalem. Pope Urban II agreed to send help in answer to the Byzantine Emperor's plea for assistance in the Byzantine effort to protect the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople, which were threatened, and to reconquer Jerusalem, held by Muslims since the 7th C. In the 11th C. Jerusalem was conquered by the Seljuk Turks , Turks from Central Asia who had converted to Islam, invaded the Islamic world and conquered both Islamic and Byzantine territories in the 11th C. In 1071 the Byzantines suffered a major defeat in Turkey at the battle of Manzikert as the Turks gained control of vast Eastern territories, from Jerusalem to what is now Afghanistan. This continuing threat prompted the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus to ask the Pope (as the head of a united Latin West) for military help. There was concern among Christians to protect pilgrims and pilgrimage routes in the East which Muslim warriors threatened and sometimes attacked. The fighting took place in the East. In this sense the First Crusade
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 111 taught by Professor Rutenburg during the Spring '05 term at Maryland.

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Crusades, Chivalry, Reform - Hi Folks! Here is some...

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