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Unformatted text preview: Deviance: There are 3 factors involved in determining what deviance is: 1. Time 2. Place 3. Public consensus or the power elite- What constitutes deviance varies from one historical period to another- Deviance , therefore, is both Relative and Neutral D EVIANCE- Any behavior that public consensus deems in violation of social norms at a given time and place B IOLOGICAL T HEORIES (Biological Determinism) Cesare Lombroso- Italian Physician Lombroso believed that the criminal was a biological degenerate , a throwback to an earlier evolutionary stage of human development and was more ape life in physical appearances than human.- Lombroso called this degeneracy ATAVISM (the appearance of some characteristics after generations caused by a recombination of genes)- According to Lombroso, ATAVISM manifests itself in certain physical characteristics called STIGMATA (a mark of infamy, disgrace, or reproach): o protruding ears o receding hairline o long arms o reclining or protruding chin o premature wrinkling of the skin o low forehead o prominent jaws and cheekbones L OMBROSO S T HEORY- serious violent offenders had inherited criminal traits, manifested in their biology- Lombroso believed in the concept of utilitarianism . 1 e.g. In their behavior choices people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain. Crime offers when the potential pleasure and rewards from illegal acts outweigh the likely pains of punishment. William Sheldon (1949) B ODY B UILD /T YPE T HEORY = SOMATOTYPING (BODY TYPE) PHYSIQUE According to Sheldon, the human body is made up of three components , each of which has a greater or lesser predisposition for delinquency or criminality a. endomorph = soft, roundness; an individual b. mesomorph = a robust muscular body; square c. ectomorph = an individual having a lean or slightly muscular build According to Sheldon, Endomorphic people are viscerotonics , relaxed and sociable; they love physical comfort, food affection, approval and the company of others. Mesomorphic people are somatonic: active, assertive, aggressive and noisy; they lust for power and love to dominate others. Ectomorphic people are cerebrotonic: private, restrained, inhibited, and hyper attentive. - Sheldon believed that each of these components is found in varying degrees in everyone S HELDON S T HEORY A criminal can be determined by his or her body type ( i.e. criminals are born, which is manifested in their biology). T HE S OCIAL F OUNDATIONS OF D EVIANCE Deviance is not so much the failings or depravity of others, or a matter of free choice. Deviance as well as conformity is shaped by society. 1. S TRUCTURE S TRAIN T HEORY- Deviance is the outcome of social strains that put pressure on people to deviate NOTE: structural strains and pressure produce ANOMIE. (Durkheim/Merton)....
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course SO 101 taught by Professor Toussaint during the Spring '07 term at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.
- Spring '07