4/14 ERS 102 - -High precipitation and/or dam break •...

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Geology 102 4/14/2008 Stream- Body of flowing water confined by a channel. (Variety of sizes and discharges): - Channel Bedrock Unconsolidated Drainage Basin = Watershed - Why care about Drainage Dividing: Heavily effect the discharge of the streams o Size of watershed o Character of watershed Floodplain- Flat area adjacent to a stream that is covered during floods. A floodplain size varies with gradient, discharge. - Floodplains tend to be in low radiant (low slope) with high discharge. Floods occur when stream overflows banks. Factors that influence discharge: - Runoff: Precipitation, snow melt (evaporation) - Infiltration: Transpiration (evaporation) Calculating Discharge: - Q (discharge)= Ac (cross section area) x V (velocity) - Q=Ac x V - Discharge- Amount of water flowing by a specific point in a fixed amount of time. Q= Ac x V - Stream Discharge= Area x Velocity Rating Curve correlates Stage Height to Discharge. Upstream Floods- Localized area, or small drainage basin
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Unformatted text preview: -High precipitation and/or dam break • Flash Floods: “upstream floods”-Small, localized area-High rainfall in short time period-Confined valleys-Move rapidly-Rare in Maine, but do occur (1981 Caribou, Me) • Riverine (Downstream) Floods:-Heavy rains over large area or rain combined with rapid snowmelt.-Riverine (a.k.a. floodplain) floods: o Floodplain: Broad, flat area, adjacent to stream • Floods in Maine:-“Seasonally pulsed”-Spring; High Precipitation and large snow pack & rapid melt-Fall: High Precipitation (hurricanes) and low transpiration • Ice Jam Floods:-Rapid snow melt + high precipitation-Sudden warming-Ice + high water-Saco River, 1936 • Flood Damage:-Erosion-Inundation-Interior Damage • How to predict Flood Hazards:-Monitoring of weather conditions-Precipitation- NWS-Snow Pack- MGS/USGS (Maine Geologic Survey/United States Geologic Survey)...
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