Weather and Climate test 1

Weather and Climate test 1 - 1)Intro.toGeography...

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1)  Intro. to Geography               -- 5 themes of geography; physical geographers Location can be both absolute and relative . It is the spatial component of geography , the being concerned with where things are. absolute : latitude & longitude, or GPS coordinates, address relative : comparing one location to another by the distance between them as measured in either time or miles (kms) Place refers to those characteristics that make a location unique . EX: What makes Athens, GA different from Athens, OH. Movement is the what, how, where and why of the diffusion of organisms and physical events across the Earth’s surface . EX: The migration of people, a hurricane, etc. Regions refers to the study of areas with uniform or similar cultural and/or physical characteristics. EX: North America vs. South America, etc. Human-Earth Relationships looks at the impacts of the environment on people & their impact on the environment . It is the relationship between human societies & their environment. EX: The impacts of deforestation, human pollution, agriculture, etc.; the relationship between the environment & human technological development. Alexander von Humboldt, (1769-1859), considered by some the “father” of modern physical geography . * credited with bringing “scientific study” to physical geography * Vladimir Köppen (Koeppen) (1846-1940), developed the Köppen Classification System for climates based on vegetation, temperature & precipitation patterns. * Alfred Wegner (1880-1930), developed the Theory of Continental Drift which later became part of the theory of Plate Tectonics. * Charles Thornthwaite (1899-1963), developed another climate
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classification system based on the principle of water balance, precipitation & potential evapotranspiration. * Tetsuya Theodore Fujita (1920-1998), developed the Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes. * Robert Simpson (1915- ), developed, along with Herbert Saffir, the Saffir-Simpson Scale for measuring hurricane intensity. _____________________________________________________________ 2)  Earth's Spheres               -- 4 spheres(atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere)             --  feedback mechanisms Atmosphere is the thin gaseous veil which surrounds the Earth. * From sea level to about 60,000 km (37,000 mi) above surface. * This is where weather occurs, our air supply is, etc. Hydrosphere is all the water above, on, and in the Earth in all three (3) states (solid, liquid, gas), freshwater, saline (saltwater), and in-between. * It comprises some 71% of the Earth’s surface, primarily as oceans. * Vital for most living organisms, many weather and many geomorphic processes. Lithosphere is the Earth’s crust and a portion of the upper mantle. * It is the rocky, outer shell of the planet, both land (continents) and the sea bottom. Biosphere all the living organisms of the planet and the interconnections between them and their physical environment.
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