Weather and Climate Test 2

Weather and Climate Test 2 - Atmospheric Moisture and...

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Atmospheric Moisture and Humidity Hydrologic Cycle is the continuous movement of water from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back to the surface, then to the atmosphere, ..... * Basic cycle involves the processes of Evaporation & Transpiration (Evapotranspiration), Condensation, Precipitation, Runoff * Transpiration refers to the water released to the atmosphere by vegetation during the process of photosynthesis. * Evapotranspiration is the combined amount of water lost by evaporation and transpiration. States of Water (Matter) : solid, liquid, gas Know these & the processes that change water from one state to another: melting, evaporation, condensation, freezing, sublimation, deposition Also, know whether heat energy is absorbed, or released during each process. Change of State Process Energy released or absorbed solid to liquid melting absorbed liquid to gas evaporation absorbed gas to liquid condensation released liquid to solid freezing released solid to gas sublimation absorbed gas to solid deposition released HUMIDITY is a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air. It can be measured in different ways or units: Specific Humidity is measured as the grams of water vapor (H 2 O v ) per kilogram (kg) of air. A mass to mass measurement. Absolute Humidity is measured as the grams of water vapor (H 2 O v ) per cubic meter (m 3 ) of air. A mass to volume measurement. Relative Humidity (R.H.) is a measurement of the ratio of water vapor (H 2 O v ) actually in the air (water vapor content) compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air could hold
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(water vapor capacity). This is a f unction of the air temperature and is expressed as a percentage. EX: It is calculated using the specific humidity in units of g or mb. (actual water vapor content / water vapor capacity) x 100 = R.H. (10 g / 30g) x 100 = 33% RH ** Relevant Terms : Partial pressure refers to the idea that each component of the atmosphere makes up a part of the total air pressure measured. Water vapor pressure is that portion of the air pressure which is the force exerted by water vapor molecules . It is measured in millibars (mb). Saturation vapor pressure is the water vapor capacity of the air as measured in mb. * The amount of water vapor the air can hold, its capacity , is a function of Tº . * Warmer air can hold more water vapor than cooler air , or conversely, cooler air will not hold as much water vapor as warmer air . * Saturation vapor pressure increases with increasing Tº . Saturation is the condition when the air is holding all the water vapor it can hold. The content (water vapor pressure) equals the capacity (saturation vapor pressure). * When the RH = 100%, the air is saturated . In this condition some of the water vapor will change from a gas to a liquid, condensation occurs . If enough condensation occurs, a cloud or fog will form.
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  • Winter '14
  • Precipitation, Water vapor, fog

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