anthro guide midterm-- - Douglas Anthropology Midterm Brief...

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Douglas Anthropology Midterm Brief Review GuideOrient Express and European MiracleThe Orient ExpressoTrain ride that spanned from the Middle East to London oMetaphorically used to signal now civilization spread starting from Mesopotamia all the way West situating itself in EuropeFirst it started with Mesopotamia, then expanded westward into Greece; after that, it spread to Italy with the Romans, and then moved westward into Europe ocivilization’s progress only heads westward (favors the west) oMesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Europe, and America most importantoBlaut argues that this notion of thinking is not true as therewere Indus Valley and Yellow River civilizations and critiques this idea of history The European MiracleoBelief that Europeans were superior and everyone else wasinferior oAll innovations and great minds came from Europe Domestication of animals and plantsRice – China/Vietnam (11,000 years)Cattle and Sorghum – Africa (8,000/10,000 years)Wheat/Barley – Middle east (10,000 years)Chickens – India/Thailand/Vietnam/Cambodia (8000 years)Maize – Central America (9000 years)Potatoes – South America (7000 years)Bananas – New Guinea (8000 years) Cradles of CivilizationNile Valley
MesopotamiaIndus ValleyYellow RiverWATCH INDUS VALLEY VIDEO??Mahenjo-Darois located in PakistanoMade out of baked bricks, population = 40,000oFlush toilet systemoCommunal baths oPriest-King statue in the city Dholaviralocated in state of Gujarat, along the Ghagger Hakra riveroWalls 15 meters high oPopulation of 20,000Harappalocated along the Indus River oJewelry made of CarnelianoNo signs of warfare of absolute monarchoOver 300 characters in writing City of Mehrgarh is thought to be one of oldest cities in the Indus region dating to about 10,000 years ago. May of the cities were abandoned when the Ghaggar-Hakra Riverdried upHistory vs. Historiography History – what actually happened Historiography – what is written down and believed to have happened. Possibly biased because winners tend to write history Religion
Cyrus Cylinder – promised religious tolerance in ancient Persian Empire (6thcentury BC)Xerxes:oPersian leaderoZoroastrianism – first monotheistic religion oAllowed freedom of religion in empire Leonidas:oKing of Greek City-state, Sparta Socrates: oGreek philosopher oOne of founders of Western philosophy Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha):oIndia/NepaloBuddhismConfucius:oChinaoConfucianism Republics and Limited Monarchies in 5thCentury BCAthens:oNot quite republic, but limited idea of monarchoAllowed wealthy male property owners to vote 12 republics:oRepublics in India oSame Idea as Athens Blaut: Chapter 2Eurocentrism– bias that favors Europe (belief that all good things came from Europe) Environmental Reductionism– theory that natural environment influences human affairs and social/cultural development oTropical nastiness: DISEASE

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