west. civ jan16 - Key Words Beginnings of Civilization...

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Key Words: Beginnings of Civilization Neolithic- New Stone Age Hunting and Gathering: “Pre-civilization” -a way of like for 10,000+ years -theoretical division of labor & the importance of women -Animism (spirits)- a belief in spirits, weaker than gods (line blurry), shaman (dealt with spirits) -clans (150 people) migrate with food, reindeer- 1 st domesticated animal -ends 7000 BC Copper Age Development of Agriculture- rise of stationary villages, experiments with metals Megalithic Europe- Advanced stone-working, astronomy (Stonehenge) Megaliths- stone blocks, formations (astronomical, religious), temples for worship From Copper Age to Bronze Tin- initially rare, mixed w/ copper- BRONZE Mesopotamia- organized into cities from villages 8500 BC, Sumerian city-states 3000 BC Sumer/Sumerians- cradle of civilization Rise of Mass-Cultivation: Technological Reasons -irrigration for the dry months -the wheel -bronze ploughs replace wooden -use of animals in agriculture -domesticated the cow w/ plough International trade begins- Dilmun (today Bahrein) -> Indus Valley Sumer’s exports- grain surplus, finished goods (weapons, tools) Consequences of large scale agriculture- population explosion (excess grain), idea of Professionalism Professionalism- specific jobs (no need for everyone to be farmers) Societal Stratification (dividing into classes) & need for administration, record- keeping -Kingship- priest & military man -scribes, administrators, priests Stratification of Religion- full-time priesthood (including women), importance of the
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west. civ jan16 - Key Words Beginnings of Civilization...

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