America Secedes From The Empire AP US HistoryChapter 8
2ndContinental Congress (1775)•Goal:To have their grievances redressed by the king and parliament.•Colonists are still not looking for Independence•What did they do?1.Raise funds for an Army and Navy2.Appoint George Washington over Continental Army3.Issued Currency
Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings (Early Victories)•June 1775, On the 3rdattempt the British captured Bunker Hill.•British suffered significant casualties (1/3 of deployed force)•Olive Branch Petition:•July 1775 the Continental Congress professed American loyalty and begged the king to prevent further warfare•After Bunker Hill King George III slammed the door on reconciliation.1.Declared colonies rebellious in August 1775 (Now Treason) with the Prohibitory Act2.Hired Hessiansto help crush the colonial uprising
The Abortive Conquest of Canada•Goal:Success would add a 14thcolony and deprive Britain from a northern base of attack.•Problem:Contradicted the claim that colonists were fighting defensively for redress of their grievances•Outcome:Almost successful but turned back at their attack on Quebec
Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense•Why did American’s continue to deny any intention of Independence?1.Loyalty was deeply engrained2.Colonial unity was still poor (Getting better)3.Open rebellion was treason = death•Why did the Americans mindset change?1.Brutal/violent acts of the British2.Burning of Falmouth, Maine3.Hiring Hessians
Thomas Paine: Common Sense•Thomas Paine:Author of Common Sense(1776). He was a radical thinker.•Thought:•Believed that the only lawful stateswere those that derive “their just powers from the consent of the governed”•Importance:•He convinced the American people that their true cause was independence rather than reconciliation
Independence vs. Reconciliation1.W/O independence as their goal they would get no foreign aide2.The colonists are beginning to interpret the vengeful royal acts of previous decades as a monarchical conspiracy to strip them of their libertiesas British subjects3.Still not everyone wanted a full radical republic•Reason:It brought more equality to everyone, aristocratic individuals still wanted their voice to be heard loudest.
•“these United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.” •Richard Henry Lee (June 7, 1776)