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A covalent bond-WPS Office.doc - General Chemistry-11 Stem...

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General Chemistry-11 StemLesson 01: Covalent BondCovalent bondis formed by equal sharing of electrons from both the participating atoms.Shared Pair/Bonding Pair- is the pair of electrons participating in the covalent bond.Molecular Bonds- is the term also used for covalent bond.Sharing of bonding pairs will ensure that the atoms achieve stability in their outer shell which issimilar to the atoms of noble gasesTypes of Covalent BondsDepending upon the number of shared electron pairs, the covalent bond can be classifiedinto:Single Covalent BondDouble Covalent BondTriple Covalent BondSingle BondsA single bond is formed when only one pair of the electron is shared between the twoparticipating atoms. It isrepresented by one (-).Although this form of covalent bond has asmaller density and is weaker than a double and triple bond, it is the most stableEx: between 2 hydrogen atoms, hydrogen and chloride atom, between bromide atom, etcDouble BondsA double bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between the two participatingatoms. It isrepresented by two dashes (=).Double covalent bonds are much stronger than asingle bond, but they are less stable.Ex: Carbon dioxide molecule has one carbon atom with six valence electrons and two oxygenatom with four valence electrons.To complete its octet, carbon shares two of its valence electrons with one oxygen atom and twowith another oxygen atom. Each oxygen atom shares its two electrons with carbon andtherefore there are two double bonds in CO2Triple Bond- A triple bond is formed when three pairs of electrons are shared between the twoparticipating atoms. Triple covalent bonds arerepresented by three dashes (≡)and are the leaststable types of covalent bonds.
Ex: In the formation of a nitrogen molecule, each nitrogen atoms having five valence electronsprovides three electrons to form three electron pairs for sharing. Thus, a triple bond is formedbetween the two nitrogen atomsPolar Covalent Bond- This type of covalent bond exists where the unequal sharing of electrons occurs due to thedifference in the electronegativity of combining atomsNonpolar Covalent BondThis type of covalent bond is formed whenever there is an equal share of electrons betweenatoms. It occurs wherever the combining atoms have similar electron affinity (diatomicelements).

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Term
Fall
Professor
Dr. Lim
Tags
Atom, Chemical bond

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