Uc davis - psc 041 - class notes

UC Davis - PSC 041 - Class Notes
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HW: DO THAT SILLY HYPOTHESIS SHIT….write a simple hypothesis…she’ll show us how to do a comparison using excel later…don’t worry about learning how to do it on your own… DUE THURSDAY 10/12/06 10/10/2006 The scientific method - Theory – identify general rules of how things in the world works o explains why something happens o organize o predict - Broad - Relevant Theory Hypothesis Study Statistical Analysis Replicate - Hypothesis o Testable prediction - Specifics – need to be specific to test things - Falsifiable – has to be open to be proven wrong - Null hypothesis – this kind of hypothesis is BAD o Predicting no relationships o Cannot be proven o Only reject - Study o Test of hypothesis - Naturalistic observation – Hawthorne Effect…the very presence of observation will chance the dynamic of how the subject interacts….usually high external validity - Laboratory – low validity environment, but can manipulate the environment - Questionnaire - Statistical Analysis o Quantitative data o Interpreting results - Is hypothesis supported? Correlations - How are two variables related? - Correlation o statistical measure of relatedness Positive correlation – variables increase or decrease together / - up slope
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Negative correlation – one variables go up, the others goes down. \ -down slope Correlation coefficient - numeric measure of how well points fit line - rage -1 to 1 Coefficient of determination - strength of correlation Correlation DOES NOT imply causation - direction of relationships unknown Experimental studies - experiment o manipulation effect - Bandura’s social learning experiment - Independent variable o What gets manipulated - dependent variable o what gets measured Independent variable dependent variable Experimental group Control Group Random assignment Read summaries for each chapter 1-5 Also do those silly labs, 10 questions based on and another 40 questions based on the textbook. Bring a scantron UCD 2000 Don’t read over the notes, look at the stupid summaries or else you’ll never get it right because she doesn’t use easy multiple choice. Measuring Behavior – Reliability and Validity Creating operational Definitions What to measure - verbal behavior - overt action – planned or purposeful expression - nonverbal behavior - physiology Measuring behavior - create environment - participants perform behavior - record behavior - qualitative (qualities of something) to quantitative
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- measurement error – any inaccuracies in measurement Measurement Error Random - inconsistent variations - not due to construct - unrelated to hypotheses - random – results due to chance Bias - systematic variations (find things that aren’t really there) - systematic - threaten validity - Reliability - stable, consistent scores - free of random error - Validity relies on reliability Environment Errors - Standardization o Standardization versus humanism Participant Errors - Random error o Large sample help stop the fluctuations - participant bias
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