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UC Davis - PSC 162 - Midterm 1 Material

UC Davis - PSC 162 - Midterm 1 Material - PSC 162 Overview...

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PSC 162 4/3/07 Overview of Personality - What is personality – the scientific (hard to define this) study of the psychological forces (vague term) that make people uniquely themselves. - Patterns o Behaviors – an action that can be observed o Thoughts – internal behavior. Action that takes place internally…subjective experiences are internal…cannot be directly observed o Emotions – positive and negative emotions…behavior and thoughts components…feeling component. - Personality patterns persist o Across time o Across situations Personality vs. Individual Differences - Similar in that both relate to characteristics that typify and individual - Personality: o Patterns of behavior, thoughts and emotions - Individual differences o Non-personality characteristics o Height, IQ, preferences, etc. Public Persona vs. Personality When we look at celebrities its easy to see their personality Aspects of Personality - Unconscious forces o Play an important role in who we are o We don’t always have 100% accuracy to why we think the way we’re thinking… - Ego Forces o We mean the sense of self - Cognitive Forces o Our thoughts play a large role in our emotions - Biological forces o Inherited genes that are predictive of some personality o This go along with temperament and biological changes (brain damage) - Conditioning/shaping forces o Rewards for shaping forces…like reinforcing positive behavior…etc. - Traits and Skills
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o Personality traits that exist on a continuum (introversion to extroversion) o Like a person who never talks to anyone. They’re not depressed but they can be perfectly happy without anyone - Spiritual or existential forces o Sense that we’re suppose to do and why we’re here…this is usually far from science…not really scientific - Person-situation interactions o That is you know what a person would do in a given situation… Scientific Approach to Studying Personality - Science o controlled systematic approach o the role of data and statistics use quantitative data and generalize to larger population o correlation does not imply causation - Non-science o Astrology, palm reading, phrenology o Non-science is non-falsifiable which isn’t scientific at all Science and personality theory development - two approaches to theory development o deductive assumptions and generalizations particulars assume patients have something and analyze your theory on them o inductive repeated observation of particular generalization look at people first then make generalization pulling ideas from different fields like evolutionary psychology Preview of the Theoretical perspectives - psychoanalytic o focus on sex drive and unconscious forces - neo-analytic/ego o work directly with freud, but said the ego, or sense of self is very important - biological o looking at genetic factors - behavior o looking at behavior properties…only looking at observable behaviors - cognitive o tried to look at mental experiences and their role, yet still quantify the data - trait o personality traits and how they can be applied to certain people - humanistic-existential
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