Hero for the Times

Hero for the Times - China Candid THE PEOPLE ON THE...

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Unformatted text preview: China Candid THE PEOPLE ON THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC ( .SangYe Edited by Gerernie R. Barmé With Miriam Lang UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY LOS ANGELES LONDON ,¢:v.:~;w-«.--w2a.19%,»... . awavlzmhsiuwma... “flaw-‘4‘; afi-J—ifi‘¢4{.‘ “4.2.: n :1; ii -i :2 ,. _m.,r._«m,. . . The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the Philip E. Lilienthal Asian Studies Endowment Fund of the University of California Press Foundation, which is supported by a major gift from Sally Lilienthal. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 2006 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging—in—Publication Data Sang Ye. China candid : the people on the People’s Republic / Sang Ye ; edited by Geremie R. Barme’ with Miriam Lang. p. cm. ISBN 0—520—24512-1 (cloth : alk. paper).— ISBN 0-520-24514—8 (pbk. : alk. paper),\ I. China—Social conditions—19494 2. China—— History—I949— I. Title: People on the People's Republic. II. Barmé, Geremie. III. Lang, Miriam IV. Title. - HN733.5 Y4I5 2006 951.05'092'2—dc22 2005052871 Manufactured in the United States of America 151413'12111009 08 0706 10987654321 Printed on Ecobook 50 containing a minimum 50% post—consumer waste, processed chlorine free. The balance contains virgin pulp, including 25% Forest Stewardship Council Certified for no old—growth tree cutting, processed either TCF or ECF. The sheet is acid— free and meets the minimum requirements ofANSI/NISO 23948-1992 (R 1997) (Permanence of Paper). A Hero for the Times A Winner in the Economic Reforms On I fanuary I993 the China Business Times ran a flont—page story under the headline (Millionaires on the Mainland ”[n it an unnamed government ofli— eial said, “For some time now China has had not only millionaires, hut also large numhers ofhillionaires. Some of their numher would even ran/e among the rich in the WE'st. ” . The report eelehrated the fith that “it is no longer a rarity for people to have mansions with luxuriant gardens, lawns, and swimming pools. Only a decade ago these would have heen the stufl of Hollywood fizntasies. Not so today ” Few of the megawealthy in China are willing to talh ahout how they made their money. Here is one real millionaire who was happy to tell his story He was short and thin, dressed in a well—worn, although meticulously clean, navy hlue suit. He loohed just like a cautious accountant—at least until he started talhing. Doing business is not as hard as people make out, that is, as long as you’re on the right wavelength. That, plus some startup capital, and you’re set. There’s money to be made everywhere you look; as long as you’ve got the right instincts you can make a pile out of whatever you set your mind to. That’s why I can tell you straight, no bullshit, I’ve been at this game for a good ten years. Sure, I’ve taken my share of hits, but now I’m sitting pretty. I’m a millionaire. But that’s not such a big deal these days. Now, I’m being honest with you here. Five years ago a million was—amil— lion. You were a master of the universe. Everything was yours for the tak— ing. But now millionaires are as common as dirt, you can buy them see— 13 ondhand on the street by the pound. If I really thought I was something, wouldn’t that make all the dudes with their own Boeing 737s think they were God? But everything has two sides. You can trip yourself up really eas— ’ ily, and every cent counts. I might only be a rmmz'néz' millionaire, but the people who used to kick me around all the time are sucking up to me and playing buddy—buddy now. Once you have a few bucks, you definitely feel better about things. Doesn’t everyone talk about diving into the sea of commerce these days? Even the bureaucrats in their Mao suits, they’re on the make too. Take the police I used to have dealings With—yeah, the guys who reckon they’re my buddies now—those guys who used to have it in for me. Well, nowadays they Want to invest in my business. But when it comes to dollars and cents, it’s no more Mr. Nice Guy. I tell them, “Look, fellas, we go back a long way; I know you.”These guys are too slow on the ground; they’re just not wired for business. Why make life hard for myself? I say, ‘‘Let me give you some advice: don’t give up the day job, okay? Stay with the uniform and the gov— ernment wages. Keep an eye on me from over there where you’re standing, and if by some chance I get into serious shit, give me a helping hand, okay?” Look, I don’t want to bullshit these guys, so I’m straight with them. They have a hard enough job just making a living. If they’re really hard up for a bit of cash, I’m happy to give them some help, a loan or a gift, whatever. I see it as sort of like taking out extra insurance. Anyway, I know they’d never dare ask for such a big slice of me—no more than ten thousand yuan or so. I Wouldn’t feel a thing. But if they invested in me and expected returns, that’d be completely different. I’d be at their mercy. If something went wrong, they wouldn’t be in any position to help me out. And, let’s be frank, I don’t need their money. What a turnaround in ten years, eh? The guy they used to fuck over as a petty criminal is on top now, and the heavy boys are begging to be friends. They dumped the whole proletarian dictatorship thing on me, and, though I wouldn’t go so far as to say I’m the one who is doing the dic— tating these days, it’s about the same damned thing. They’re still driving around in their shitty old cars. Even their bureau head only has a Santana, and it’s not even his own. I’ve bought my own, and I can go wherever I want in it. It’s only right that they’d want to suck up to a God of Wealth like me. I deserve it. To be honest, when I was an angry young man, my only fault was that I4 CHAIRMAN MAO’S ARK a. I loved a good fight. And, believe me, I was damned good at it. I wouldn’t say'I could beat all comers, but there was no one in South Beijing who could stand up to me, take my word for it. Back in ’82, outside Yongding Men, I had a run—in with a pack of Northeast Tigers,1 though if you ask me they were a bunch of pussies. Okay, I was a bit heavy—handed, and I put one of them in the hospital for a while. Normally I would never have got done for it, but those were bad days, right around the time of the “strike—hard” campaign.2 I had this rep for being a brawler, so the local pigs already had it in for me. Plus the little shit I was teamed up with ratted on me and said Iwas the one behind it. I ended up being the evil black hand, and so they hauled me in. Remember, back then, it was “try them fast and throw the book at them”? In less than a fortnight I’d been in court and been sentenced to three big ones, and I was lucky to get off so lightly. Thankfully they didn’t send'me to the boondocks or anything, just a local spot for labor reformon ' - a farm. Because I had a pretty good attitude—fuck, but I had a good atti- tudel—they made me a prisoner—warden, in‘ charge of the others. After a while the government showed a bit of mercy and reduced my sentence by six months, so I was out in the summer of ’84. Apart from never having enough to eat, labor reform is pretty much just what you’d expect. Freedom and human rights are all relative, wouldn’t you agree? I was twenty—three when they let me out. Yeah, I was born in April 1962. Two and a half years inside, and I’d had three birthdays. Before they locked me up, all I had was a part—time job at our local vegetable market—é nothing regular—and that was gone. When I got out, I knew I’d have to start thinking seriously about the future. By then all the guys my age were married, and I had absolutely nothing. The police weren’t all bastards, though. That’s how come we could be friends later. on. Quite a few .of them': said I wasn’t like the usual crop of thieves and crooks. “You’re just a bit too I. Northeast Tigers (dongbez' bu) is the wary term Beijing people use for rowdies from northeastern‘China, who are reputed to be fearless and vicious. Yongding Men was once the southernmost gateway to Beijing; it is now a suburb, with a multilane overpass marking the former entrance to the imperial capital. A new, shoddily built Yongding’ Men has been built to replace the original, razed in I9 57. 2. “Strike—hard” campaign Glenda) refers to a period of coordinated, draconian police and judicial repression of social disorder, corruption, and crime during which arrests, trials, and executions are commonplace. Such campaigns have occurred with increasing frequency since the early 19805 in China, and, to an extent, have replaced thelMaoist—style mass move— ments that were common in the past. A HERO FOR THE TIMES IS handy with your fists, otherwise you’re an okay guy. ” That really touched me. Just goes to show that when they wipe the floor with you, you’re happy for any small kindness. So, all right, I was a fighter, but I had a good heart. I was okay. Can’t tell you how hard it was to find a job when I got out. In those days state—run enterprises still meant something. None of them would have any— thing to do with me. My parents were really anxious, too, because they thought it’d only be a matter of time before I landed myself in trouble again. They used every connection they could think of and even sweet—talked the' local police into keeping an eye on me. FinallyI got a license to run my own stall. But to get that you need startup capital, and my dad was just a fuck— ing coolie. We scrounged and borrowed and finally managed to get 1,400 yuan together. There was nobody with money you could approach; no one had real cash in those days. If you had ten thousand yuan, people thought you were really somebody important. Anyway, getting money out of peo— ple was real hard labor. I started out mostly trading in clothing. You can make more profit .on clothes, and you don’t need any particular expertise. It all depends on how good a talker you are. If you’re into something else, like watches, you really need to know how to fix the damned things. If you fuck up a person’s watch, you have to pay for it. I didn’t know any of that stuff, so I followed the crowd and set up in the garment business. Another thing. was, my license was only temporary, so I couldn’t trade in anything but clothes and small everyday articles. , ' Clothing was hard enough, since you had to go racing between Guang— zhou and Beijing. You had to bring in the stuff from Guangzhou yourself; if you stayed in Beijing and depended on middlemen to bring thegoods from Guangzhou, you’d be ripped off. Who knows how many people you’d end up paying off? If you didn’t get your own supply you’d only make a few yuan, if that. It was really hard in those days; you couldn’t afford to take a break. After a day in the market you’d set up a night stall and just keep going. Never got home till the middle of the night, and you’d be at it again at daybreak. And those trips to Guangzhou and back were sheer hell. I had limited capital, so I could only bring back a few hundred kilos or so at a time, as much as I could lug onto the train myself. I wouldn’t waste money on a sleeper—couldn’t get a ticket anyway—so I’d end up sitting or stand— ing or crouching near the train door for the Whole trip back to Beijing. By the time I got off a few days later, my legs would be swollen as big as loaves 16 CHAIRMAN MAo’s ARK pan/.414)“; V of bread. If you pressed the flesh, your finger would leave this big dent. But as-the old saying goes, “Only when you suffer in the extreme can you be— come a superior being.” With everything I’ve been through, I could write my own Pioneering History3 It was when I was working in clothing that a real opportunity finally pre— sented itself There was a time when the authorities allowed people to import secondhand clothing. To people outside China it was just rubbish, but we started buying loads of clothing, mostly square—meter boxloads, at ten dollars or less a load. You couldn’t really say it was imported; mostly it had been smuggled in—through Guangdong and Fujian at first, though later Tianjin and people along the Shandong coast got involved as well. Once they had this stuff on their hands they couldn’t offload it locally, so they had to sell it on. Getting secondhand clothes into Beijing Wasn’t so easy, though. In the first place, they wouldn’t let you'ship them on the trains—unless you were willing to rent a whole freight car, that is. Guys who had the money to do that wouldn’t be caught dead trading in secondhand ' clothes. So your only choice was to rent a truck yourself to haul the stuff all the way from the south. I’d made some buddies while working on my stall, and one of them cleared the way for the trip all the way from Fujian to Beijing without getting anyone else involved. It was cheaper than from Guangdong, and he’d even arranged the truck. The only problem was that he was stuck with a driver he wasn’t all that sure about. It was a long way ' to travel with no real security, so he needed someone to go along with him for backup. And here I was, known to be handy with my fists—infamous in faCt—and a trader in clothing as well. So he asked me to go along as his bodyguard. To think at the timeI was nearlystupid enough to. let. this opportunity pass me by! I told him that if there was money up front I could find a reli— able guy who knew how to handle himself to make the trip. But he was in a bind because he didn’t have any cash in hand. In other words, he couldn’t afford to front the money. That’s howl ended up offering my services, like we decided to work together. I got a few sacks of old clothes as payment. All in all, the trip went pretty smoothly. Whenever we ran into a blockade, you could usually get by with a bribe. It was fairly peaceful on the roads. We came back with a few trucks full of stuff. When we divided the cargo up, I 3. Chum/rye 5/72, a 19605 novel by Liu Qing about the pioneers of socialism in the countryside. A HERO FOR THE TIMES I7 didn’t have time to open up my sacks to see just what I was getting—just brought it straight back home. That’s when I discovered, fuck me dead, most of it was 70, 80 percent new, and the type of thing that was in fashion at the time! The only damned problem was it was all filthy, and it stank to high heaven. I separated out the stuff that was too dirty to keep—things with oil stains or bloodstains or whatever—and sent it off to, the recycling station. Then I mobilized my whole family to work with me to wash and iron the rest. We ended up with a fairly impressive wardrobe of clothes. Because there was so much, we left a lot of the second—grade stuff unwashed and sold it as it was. And boy, was it a profitable deal for me! I sold the better things for a few hundred yuan each; one or two items like that, and I’d covered my costs. The rest of them—and we’re talking a few hundred garments here— were pure profit. Your average piece of clothing would fetch twenty to thirty yuan a' pop.‘Night markets were particularly good, since no one could see what they were really getting. Back then people were completely fixated with new stuff from overseas, and there wasn’t much of it around. I was in a good position because I was selling bona fide foreign clothing, just what amateur overseas Chinese and tarted—up girls around town were looking for.4 I decided to strike again while the iron was hot. This time I went to Fujian by myself to bring back a couple of loads of clothing. I thought I’d wholesale the stuff back in Beijing, so that’s whyI bought so much; it made better business sense, too. Nowadays people are impressed if you can make a 50 percent profit on a deal; back then I wouldn’t think anything of 500 percent. We were so hot we were just burning the place up. You could never get away with a beautiful setup like that for long, and soon the government banned the trade in secondhand clothing. They incin- erated all the clothes they confiscated. They-were perfectly within their rights; anyway, the clothes really were incredibly dirty, and no one knew if they were carrying some infectious disease. I might have made a killing sell— Ning secondhand clothes, but believe me, I never wore them. Never mind the filth; it made me sick to think I’d be wearing the things some fucking for— eigner had thrown away. Anyway, I’d been working on the premise that they’d ban the stuff sooner or later, so when the government finally took 4. “Amateur overseas Chinese” (yeyu buaqizzo) is a term of deprecation for young men and women who want to look like wealthy Chinese from overseas returning to visit their down— at—heel Motherland. 18 CHAIRMAN MAo’s ARK 2rfl:l;;.—':thw gregaa-s 11';_:.§:I‘LT-" action, I was pretty much in the clear. I didn’t have much left on my hands—the good stuff had all been sold, and what was left was just stuff , people had sifted through and discarded—and I was more than happy to hand it over to the authorities for burning. It was the individual stall owners, the private entrepreneurs on the streets, who were hit hardest by the bans. By the time the clothes reached them through all the middlemen, they were already fairly pricey. They were just managing to make back a few dollars when the bans took effect. I felt sorry for them. Some of them didn’t want to give in, so they kept selling the clothes on the sly. They ended up being fined or having their licenses taken away. But they were stupid to try and click around with the authorities. You always lose when you take on the government head—on. If you want to play games, you have to learn where the loopholes are and catch them unawares, before they’ve woken up to your scam. If you have any sense, you’ll be long gone by the time they’re ready to strike. Sure, people still trade in secondhand clothing today. They’ve adapted to the environment. They know the government can’t keep an eye on them all the time, so they wait until things have calmed down, and they go back into business. When the market booms and the government puts out another ban, everyone lies low. After the ban slacks off, they start up again. V I made tens of thousands of yuan out of that first deal. Amazing how much you could score with just a few thousand in startup capital. Within about half a year, or more precisely about three to four months, I had nearly a hundred thousand yuan. Back then that was real money. I was crazy. Man, I went out and bought an electric cart, you know, the kind dis— abled people use. The top speed might have only been thirty kilometers or v so an hour, but .I felt like I was on top of the world. Later on I couldn’t get- a license for the damned thing, so I was always being stopped by the police. Since I wasn’t disabled, they said I shouldn’t be driving it. I took the hint, and I knew a bit about cars anyway, so I got myself a real one. We were so clueless back then; like we thought the best car in the world was a Toyota Crown. I didn’t have that much cash, so I got a joint—venture Fiat. It was this dirt—gray color, with the engine in the back. It was small and cramped, and if you put four people in it you couldn’t shut the doors. I might have thought it was a shit bucket, but other people treated me differently. I was the first in my neighborhood to have my own car. 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Hero for the Times - China Candid THE PEOPLE ON THE...

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