Lecture 7, 8, 9

Lecture 7, 8, 9 - Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Biochemistry:...

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1 The Chemistry of Living Things Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E St., room 213 Biochemistry : Chemistry of living things and life processes. Cell: structural unit of all living organisms. Cells are specific to the function of the particular tissue. cell membrane cell nucleus cytoplasm Parts of the cell: Chemical composition, structure and function. Biomolecules • Phospholipids •Pro te ins • Carbohydrates • Lipids (fats and oils) • Nucleic acids Phospholipids Constituents of cell membranes Simplified representation of a phospholipid molecule: Basic structure H OPO 3 - CH C C HO H C C O O - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cell membrane
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2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cell membrane H 2 N CH C CH 3 OH O alanine (Ala) H 2 N CH C CH 2 OH O OH serine (Ser) H 2 N CH C CH 2 OH O phenylalanine (Phe) Examples of amino acids Proteins N C CO H O H R H H amine acid Side chain: combination of C,H, and sometimes O, N, or S determines the identity of the amino acid The __________________________ determines the function of the protein. All natural proteins are formed from the combination of only 20 different amino acids Examples of Protein Functions Class of protein Example Function of example structural proteins collagen connective tissue (tendons) enzymes DNA polymerase replicates and repairs DNA transport proteins hemoglobin transports O 2 to the cells contractile proteins actin, myosin cause contraction of muscles protective proteins antibodies complex with foreign proteins hormones insulin regulates glucose metabolism toxins snake venoms incapacitate food animals receptors Eye α -receptors dilation of pupil Formation of a peptide bond (condensation reaction) Simplified representation of a protein H 2 NCC OH O H R 1 NCCO H O H R 2 H H + H 2 NC C O H R 1 N CCO H O H R 2 H + H 2 O aa 1 aa 2 aa 3 aa 4 aa 5 aa n
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3 Protein structure Primary structure Secondary structure β - sheet α - helix random coil aa 1 aa 2 aa 3 aa 4 aa 5 aa n Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Protein structure Enzyme Catalytic Cycle 1 The substrate, sucrose, consists of glucose and fructose bonded together. Bond Enzyme Active site The substrate binds to the enzyme, forming an enzyme- substrate complex. 2 H 2 O The binding of the substrate and enzyme places stress on the glucose-fructose bond, and the bond breaks. 3 Glucose Fructose Products are released, and the enzyme is free to bind other substrates. 4 - Biological catalysts: ______________________. - Extremely specific. _______________________ . Enzymes Specialized class of proteins.
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4 Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis S + E ES substrate enzyme enzyme-substrate complex ES E + P enzyme products Enzyme Inhibition I + E EI inhibitor enzyme inhibited enzyme Hormones Cell: structural unit of any living organism. Cells form organs and tissues : heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, brain, etc.
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course CHEM 004 taught by Professor Zysmilich during the Spring '06 term at GWU.

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Lecture 7, 8, 9 - Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Biochemistry:...

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