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CHEM 1035 – FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDECH 1Chemistry – Study of matter, its properties, the change that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes.Matter – mass, takes up space (volume).Measurements:1.Units2.Number 3.UncertaintyUnits: -Two systems1.English system: USA (only)2.Metric: Science – units based on multiple of 10 converted by using prefixes-Typical units:1.Length – meter (m)2.Mass – gram (g)3.Volume – liter (l)-Unit conversions 1.Mega (M) – million 1062.Kilo (k) – thousand 1033.Deci (d) – tenth 10-14.Centi (c) – hundredth 10-25.Milli (m) – thousandth 10-36.Micro (µ) – millionth 10-67.Nano (n) – billionth 10-98.Pico (p) – trillionth 10-12Density – ratio of mass to volume d=massvolume.Intensive properties-Independent of amount of matter-Used to characterize matter-Ex. Density, boiling point, melting pointExtensive properties-Dependent of amount of matter-Cannot characterize matter-Ex. Mass, volume, lengthTemperature
MATTERPure SubstancesMixturesHomogenousHeterogeneousElementsCompounds-Fahrenheit (⁰F): water freezes at 32⁰F and boils at 212⁰F-Celsius (⁰C): water freezes at 0⁰C and boils at 100⁰C-Kelvin (K): water freezes at 273K and boils at 372K℉=1.8∙℃+32K=℃+273.15Uncertainty of measurements-Uncertainty due to:1.Reliability of the measuring tool2.Skill of the operatorSignificant figures – recorded digits, certain and uncertain -Rules for sig. figs.1.Any non-zero is sig.2.Zeros between non-zeros are sig.3.Zeros on the left are notsig.4.Zeros after decimal are sig.5.Addition and subtraction: fewest number of decimal places6.Multiplication and division: fewest number of sig. figs. Precision and accuracy-Precision – range of measurements: how close repeated to each other and affected by random erroroRandom error – error that varies by random some measurements. Too high and some too low-Accuracy – how close to correct answer and affected by systematic erroroSystematic error – error present in every measurement make everymeasurement too high or too lowRules for rounding off numbers1.More than 5, increase by one2.Less than 5, number unchanged3.Is 5, increase if oddCH 2Mixtures
AZX-Two or more substances that are physically mixed/combined together-Composition is varied – changed easily-Properties of individual components are maintained-Components of mixture can be separated by some physical means-Homogenous – uniform comp. throughout-Heterogeneous – comp. isn’t uniformPure substances -Elements – simplest type of substance with unique chemical and physical properties. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Elements consist of:oAtoms – smallest particle of an element with characteristics of that elementoMolecules – 2 or more atoms bonded togetherElements that occur as molecules (diatomic molecules) – H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.