finalexamstudyguide - CHEM 1035 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE CH 1...

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CHEM 1035 – FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE CH 1 Chemistry – Study of matter, its properties, the change that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes. Matter – mass, takes up space (volume). Measurements: 1. Units 2. Number 3. Uncertainty Units: - Two systems 1. English system: USA (only) 2. Metric: Science – units based on multiple of 10 converted by using prefixes - Typical units: 1. Length – meter (m) 2. Mass – gram (g) 3. Volume – liter (l) - Unit conversions 1. Mega (M) – million 10 6 2. Kilo (k) – thousand 10 3 3. Deci (d) – tenth 10 -1 4. Centi (c) – hundredth 10 -2 5. Milli (m) – thousandth 10 -3 6. Micro (µ) – millionth 10 -6 7. Nano (n) – billionth 10 -9 8. Pico (p) – trillionth 10 -12 Density – ratio of mass to volume d = mass volume . Intensive properties - Independent of amount of matter - Used to characterize matter - Ex. Density, boiling point, melting point Extensive properties - Dependent of amount of matter - Cannot characterize matter - Ex. Mass, volume, length Temperature
MATTER Pure Substances Mixtures Homogenous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds - Fahrenheit (⁰F): water freezes at 32⁰F and boils at 212⁰F - Celsius (⁰C): water freezes at 0⁰C and boils at 100⁰C - Kelvin (K): water freezes at 273K and boils at 372K = 1.8 + 32 K = + 273.15 Uncertainty of measurements - Uncertainty due to: 1. Reliability of the measuring tool 2. Skill of the operator Significant figures – recorded digits, certain and uncertain - Rules for sig. figs. 1. Any non-zero is sig. 2. Zeros between non-zeros are sig. 3. Zeros on the left are not sig. 4. Zeros after decimal are sig. 5. Addition and subtraction: fewest number of decimal places 6. Multiplication and division: fewest number of sig. figs. Precision and accuracy - Precision – range of measurements: how close repeated to each other and affected by random error o Random error – error that varies by random some measurements. Too high and some too low - Accuracy – how close to correct answer and affected by systematic error o Systematic error – error present in every measurement make every measurement too high or too low Rules for rounding off numbers 1. More than 5, increase by one 2. Less than 5, number unchanged 3. Is 5, increase if odd CH 2 Mixtures
A Z X - Two or more substances that are physically mixed/combined together - Composition is varied – changed easily - Properties of individual components are maintained - Components of mixture can be separated by some physical means - Homogenous – uniform comp. throughout - Heterogeneous – comp. isn’t uniform Pure substances - Elements – simplest type of substance with unique chemical and physical properties. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Elements consist of: o Atoms – smallest particle of an element with characteristics of that element o Molecules – 2 or more atoms bonded together Elements that occur as molecules (diatomic molecules) – H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , and I 2 .

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