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psychexam1 - Psychology Exam 1 Nucleus biological control...

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Psychology Exam 1 Nucleus - biological control center for the cell Chromosomes - structures in nucleus that contain genes, unit of hereditary transmission DNA : - deoxyribonucleic acid - complex molecule that is the constituent of genes - double helix: Adenine-Thymine, Cytosine-Guanine - governs production of proteins 22 autosomes, 23 rd pairsex chromosomes (XX vs XY) Genotype - complete set of organism’s genes Phenotype - overt characteristics and behavior of organism Phenylketonuria ( PKU ): - disorder passed on by a single recessive gene - leads to profound mental retardation - lack of digestive enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine - treatable at birth PKU genotype does not always lead to PKU phenotype Mendel- cross-fertilized pea plants to observe laws of genetic inheritance Allele - alternative form of a specific gene, dominant vs recessive, homozygous vs heterozygous Codominance - both genes (alleles) affect phenotype, blood type Incomplete dominance - 2 different alleles have a phenotype that is intermediate between the types favored by each allele on its own, Serotonin Transporter Gene mom has short (less serotonin production) + dad has long (more serotonin production) = child has medium Polygenic inheritance - many genes all influence a single trait, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia Proximate cause (influences within lifetime that cause phenotype) vs Ultimate cause (natural selection- drives biological evolution) Darwin- 1 st idea: common ancestor, 2 nd idea: evolution occurs through natural selection (inspired by Malthus- reproduction > food supply, some survive while others die), dominant/widespread trait is favored by environment, transmutation evolution 3 principles of evolution: - must be variation among the individuals within a population - one of the variants must survive and reproduce at higher rates than others - traits associated with superior survival and reproduction must be passed onto offspring Variation - random selection, mutations (random, most have no effect or harm, some have advantage, contribute to genetic and phenotypic diversity Piping plover - predator approaches, mother flies away pretending to be injured, in order to enhance survival of mother’s genes Belding ground squirrel - predator presence causes cry of alarm to warn others, puts itself in danger by giving away location, individual protects its genes rather than itself Stickleback - Lake Washington had murky waters that hid stickleback from predators, water cleared caused exposure of stickleback, increase in stickleback with bony plates on sides (armor that protects from predators) *Only 40% of Americans believe in evolution (US 2 nd lowest) 1) Organisms can be transformed over time by selective breeding
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2) Fossil records provide ample evidence for evolution’s claims 3) anatomical leftovers in modern species reveal evolutionary past of species (whales have hip and leg bones descended from land mammals), (human coccyx indicates humans descended from ancestors that had tails
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