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opic 3 odernization Institutions Topic 3 – Modernization, Institutions, Capacity, and Legitimacy • Modernization Theory • The importance of institutionalization Legitimacy and capacity of institutions olitical parties and political development Political parties and political development 1
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Modernization Theory Assumptions: • All countries follow the same general development path • Western society is the pinnacle of development • Countries must transition from traditional to modern values and institutions • It is a straightforward and linear process 2
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Traditional versus Modern Values raditional odern Traditional Modern Identification limited to familial or ethnic group Identification with society as a whole Support of leadership based on familial, ethnic, or regional filiation Support of leadership based on merit affiliation Loyalty to tribal, ethnic, or regional leaders Loyalty to the larger political unit of the state Limited recognition of the need for or the ability to change Awareness of one’s ability to affect change in the political 3 system
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Modern Political Institutions • Separate and specialized institutions • Merit-based and highly skilled bureaucracy • Effective political parties • And, according to Olson, an independent judiciary is vital 4
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Political Development and Political Decay Early modernization theory was too simplistic and optimistic • The process of political development is reversible Political decay is a real possibility in developing states he process is not necessarily linear The process is not necessarily linear 5
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Political Institutions and Political Development Political Institutionalization = Political Development There are four measures of the degree of institutionalization: • Adaptability vs. Rigidity Complexity vs. Simplicity • Autonomy vs. Subordination • Coherence vs. Disunity 6
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Adaptability vs. Rigidity
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