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organic chem and aliphatics.docx - Alkanes Alkanes are...

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AlkanesAlkanes are organic compounds that consist of single-bonded carbon andhydrogen atoms. The formula forAlkanes is CnH2n+2, subdivided into threegroups –chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, and the branched alkanes.Alkanes are comprised of a series of compounds that contain carbon andhydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. This group of compoundsconsists of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. Also,comprises a homologous series having amolecular formula of CnH2n+2.The simplest family of compounds are called alkanes. They contain onlycarbon and hydrogen. Each carbon atom forms four bonds and eachhydrogen atom forms one bond. Chemists use line-angle formulasbecause they are easier and faster to draw than condensed structuralformulas.HydrocarbonsThe simple alkane methane contains one carbon atom and CH4asitsmolecular formula. As this compound have just single covalent bondsonly, therefore, its structural formula isIn a long chain alkane molecule, additional carbon atoms are attached toeach other with the help of a single covalent bond. Each atom is attachedto the sufficient hydrogen atoms to develop a total of four single covalentbonds. This long-chain structure is known as octane. An eight-carbonalkane has a molecular formula – C 8H 18 and structural formula-Alkanes List
The list of some Alkanes and the molecular formula is given below.List of AlkanesMolecularFormulaStructureMethane(CH4)MethaneEthane(C2H6)EthanePropane(C3H8)PropaneButane(C4H10)ButanePentane(C5H12)PentaneHexane(C6H14)Hexane
Heptane(C7H16)HeptaneOctane(C8H18)OctaneNonane(C9H20)NonaneDecane(C10H22)DecaneIUPAC Rules for Alkane Nomenclature1.Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain.2.Identify and name groups attached to this chain.3.Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest a substituent group.4.Designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number andname.5.Assemble the name, listing groups in alphabetical order.6.The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, arenot considered when alphabetizing.e.g 3-methylheptane, not 2-ethylhexane.

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