BIOL202 - Study Guide - Lecture 15 - Evidence of Evolution

BIOL202 - Study Guide - Lecture 15 - Evidence of Evolution...

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LECTURE 15: STUDY GUIDE EVIDENCE THAT SPECIES EVOLVE FROM OTHER SPECIES READING: Red/Black Campbell, 7 th ed. pgs. 516-520; 448-451; Fig 34.29 (another transitional form) Fig 34.16 (swim bladder = air bladder), Green Campbell, 6 th ed. pgs 484-488 + Fig 22.3, 22.4, pgs 438-442; Fig 34.27 (another transitional form); Fig. 34.13 (swim bladder = air bladder), TERMINOLOGY: sedimentation of lake or sea; sedimentary rock geological strata (singular: stratum) transitional form Rodhocetus bipedal hominid vestigial structure trachea vs. esophagus vs. epiglottis air bladder = swim bladder QUESTIONS FROM LECTURE: 1. Look at the Fossil/Geological Record in your overheads or text that show geological ages of the Earth. Shown is the pattern of species' appearances fossil record over time . a) What does Darwin’s Theory of Descent with Modification for the origin of species predict about the pattern of appearances of different types of organisms over time? In other words, if Darwin’s proposal about how species originate is correct, what should we see in the fossil/geological record? b) What does the old creationist idea predict? 2. Look again at the Fossil/Geological Record in your overheads or text. Over the years, paleontologists have found tens of thousands of fossilized insects . However, not one fossilized insect as been found in rock that, by radiometric dating, is more than about 363 million years old. Many, many other types of invertebrates are found in much older rocks. Here are two related questions that require somewhat different (short) answers: a) How do biologists explain the absence of certain types of organisms, e.g., insects, from rocks of a given age or older?
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b) Why do biologists feel that the absence of certain types of organisms from rocks of a given age or older is strong evidence AGAINST the proposal that all species were placed on earth at more or less the same time? (yes, this is a bit redundant with the second part of question 1) 3. As you are probably all aware, modern-day “Creationists” still exist. These individuals reject Darwin’s suggestion that all species on earth are descended from earlier-existing species. They especially reject the suggestion that humans are the modified descendents of some early form of ape. Many creationists take what was written in Genesis, the first book of the Christian bible as the literal truth . In the 1960s and 1970s, there was a movement among creationists to have what was termed “scientific creationism” taught in the public schools as a valid, alternative hypothesis for the origin and diversity of species on earth. So-called “balanced treatment” laws were passed in Tennessee and Arkansas requiring that teachers spend as much time on “scientific creationism” as they did on evolution. These laws were challenged in court. Nationally publicized trials followed. In the Arkansas trial, leading scientific creationists were put on the stand and asked
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course BIOL 202 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '05 term at Maryland.

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BIOL202 - Study Guide - Lecture 15 - Evidence of Evolution...

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