ch 2 - observes behavior correctional research – how one...

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Elizabeth Hight September 2, 2007 Chapter 2 Learning Goals A. Learning Goal One a. A theory is a set of ideas that help to explain and make predictions. A hypothesis is an educated guess by using assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy. Two psychoanalytic theories include Freud and Erikson. Freud suggested that personality has three structures: id, superego, and ego. Erikson proposed that there are eight psychosocial stages of development- trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair. B. Learning Goal Two a. Methods of collecting data include observation through a lab or natural setting, a survey and interview, staging a standardized test without bias, study history through a case study, record life history, and study the body at certain periods. b. Three main types of research designs include: descriptive research –
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Unformatted text preview: observes behavior, correctional research – how one relationship connects with another, and experimentation. c. Some ways that researchers study the life span are through cross sectional studies, which aim to compare different ages simultaneously; longitudinal studies which study the same person over a period of years; and sequential to study different ages at the same time, yet over a period of years. C. Learning Goal Three a. Researchers must stick to certain ethical procedures set by informing the participant of any risks, provide confidentiality, inform the participant of the methods used, and ensure that deception will now skew the survey. b. Gender bias affects the outcome of the method by magnifying results when in reality, there is only a small percentage due to social misconceptions of gender roles. Cultural bias can skew results by not including a group of people-ethnic glossing....
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