Functions of Skeleton - Nutrient foramina – holes in the...

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Functions of Skeleton Support Protection Movement Electrolyte balance Acid-base balance Blood formation Bones and Osseous Tissue Bone/osseous tissue is a connective tissue where the matrix is hardened by the decomposition of Ca Mineralization – hardening process Shapes of bones Long bones – longer than they are wide, act as levers Short bones – equal in length and width, limited motion, and glide across other bones Flat bones – enclose and protect organs Irregular bones – elaborate shapes General features of bones Compact bone – a cylinder of white osseous tissue Medullary – cylinder encloses this space or cavity which contains bone marrow Spongy bone – the ends of the bone, loosely organized Diaphysis- the shaft of a long bone, provides leverage Epiphysis – the head of the diaphysis, strengthens the joint The joint surface where one bone meets another is covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
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Unformatted text preview: Nutrient foramina – holes in the bone for blood vessels Periosteum – the bone is covered with this sheath, strong attachment, 2 layers: osseogenic (bone forming) and fibrous (collagen layer) Sharpey fibers – fibers that penetrate the bone matrix Endosteum- the inner surface of the bone is covered with, connective tissue and osseogenic cells Epiphyseal plate – made of hyaline cartilage and separates the epiphysis and diaphysis Bone Cells Osteogenic cells- stem cells that develop from fibroblasts and give rise to other bone Osteoblasts- bone forming cells Osteocytes – are former osteoblasts and have become trapped in matrix Osteoclasts – bone dissolving cells The bone matrix Dry Made up of collage, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals Compact bone Concenric lammallae – layers of matrix arranged around a haversian canal...
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